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OIE International Conference on the Control of Infectious Animal Diseases by Vaccination

Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 13-16, 2004

Conclusions and Recommendations

CONSIDERING THAT: 1. Preventing the spread of animal disease through international trade of animals and animal products is one of the primary missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). This is accomplished by establishing and updating international standards and guidelines that prevent spread of pathogens while avoiding unjustified sanitary barriers.

2. The OIE standards for terrestrial animals are contained in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (the Terrestrial Code) and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (the Terrestrial Manual).

3. The collection, analysis and dissemination of veterinary scientific information is also one of the main missions of the OIE.

 4. The standards developed by the OIE are recognised as international standards for animal health and zoonoses by the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

5. Infectious animal diseases and zoonoses represent a major constraint to the maintenance and development of livestock and present a major threat to public health and livelihood of farmers especially in developing countries, and to national economies.

 6. During the past few years, the world has witnessed the emergence and re-emergence of several infectious animal diseases that have had a major impact on animal and human health. These have severely affected the economy of developed as well as developing countries.

7. New scientific and technological knowledge for the prevention of many of these infectious diseases could contribute to the development of safer and more efficacious vaccines and diagnostic tests.

 8. For ethical, ecological and economical reasons, it is no longer acceptable to control and eradicate disease outbreaks mainly by applying mass slaughter of animals.

9. Vaccines help to improve animal health, public health, animal welfare, and agricultural sustainability; to protect the environment, maintain biodiversity, and protect consumers of animal products.

10. The OIE, being the international reference organisation for animal health and zoonoses has incorporated wherever possible into its standards, the best “state of the art” scientific knowledge on the use of appropriate diagnostic tests, disease prevention and control by vaccination.

11. Vaccination is without doubt one of the most useful single measures which can be used to prevent animal diseases, and, veterinary science has since its inception been strongly linked with the development of vaccinology.

12. Vaccination has proved its capacity to help prevent, control, and eradicate disease as exemplified by smallpox, rinderpest and rabies.


13. Recent scientific advances in the diagnostic field, in particular the possibility to differentiate vaccinated animals from those that have undergone pathogen replication as a result of natural challenge, have been recently incorporated into the Terrestrial Manual. Their implications have either already been reflected or are being currently discussed in the OIE in order to amend the Terrestrial Code for disease control and recovery of disease free status after an occurrence of a disease,

 14. This International Conference is based on the valuable experience gained in the control and elimination of foot and mouth disease and other significant animal diseases and zoonoses through the use of vaccination,

15. The Conference is an opportunity for the exchange of the latest scientific information at the global level that will, at the same time, assist in the evaluation and improvement of the current OIE standards and guidelines for better control of animal infectious diseases,

16. For this event, the OIE has acted in collaboration with the International Association for Biologicals (IABs), which has a long and valuable tradition in the dissemination of the most relevant scientific information on human and animal health,


 1. Current approaches to animal disease prevention, control, and eradication by vaccination be reviewed wherever possible according to the latest scientific information and incorporated into the OIE standards, recommendations and guidelines in order to facilitate both animal disease control and trade in animals and animal products.

2. Whenever feasible, OIE should formulate vaccination policies as alternatives to mass slaughtering of animals.

 3. Greater emphasis should also be placed on the use of vaccination for the control of food-borne and other zoonotic diseases in animals in order to safeguard public health. This may include wildlife reservoirs of pathogens.

4. The OIE develop and incorporate into its standards, recommendations and guidelines all relevant new information on diagnostic tests and the effective prevention, control and subsequent eradication of infectious animal diseases by vaccination.

 5. The OIE request Member Countries to produce and use vaccines manufactured, tested and approved according to the OIE standards and guidelines in order to improve their safety and potency. The same principles should apply to diagnostic tests.

 6. The OIE encourage Member Countries to strengthen the capacity of their antigen and vaccine banks to control emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases and zoonoses.

7. The OIE recommend the development of more flexible marketing authorization regulations in order to be able to adapt vaccines to the epidemiological situation in the field when facing pathogens with multiple serotypes as exemplified by vaccines against human influenza; provided good epidemiological tools are in place.

8. The OIE support all research efforts in veterinary vaccinology and encourage funding agencies to put research on new veterinary biological products on their agendas and priorities. Public research is still needed to fill the gap where the private sector does not invest in new products due to the lack of foreseen investment return.

9. The OIE should provide on official request from Member Countries, international standards and general information on antigen and vaccine banks availability.

10. The OIE encourage other international and regional organisations to adopt a similar approach in the control and eradication of other infectious animal diseases by vaccination.

11. The OIE and the International Association for Biologicals (IABs) disseminate all information concerning this International Conference to OIE Member Countries, international and regional organisations and other stakeholders.

12. The OIE refer the scientific information generated and discussed at this International Conference, as well as this Recommendation to the OIE Regional and relevant Specialist Commissions before submission for endorsement by the OIE International Committee. (These recommendations, and the specific points from the conference sessions, along with the quality veterinary biologics available worldwide, support the position that veterinary vaccinology can help to build a better world). (Adopted by the OIE International Conference on the Control of Infectious Animal Diseases by Vaccination 16 April 2004)