I have been thinking about a reply and Mr Morley's remark is so stupid I can't believe he made it.a) Vaccination against FMD has been used to control and eradicate FMD in South America and in other outbreaks in Europe and the Middle East with success. It has allowed control and eradication of even extensive outbreaks in cattle. Keith Sumption could give you a more precise list of its successful use in outbreaks if you needed this. He analysed outbreaks and found there was if anything a slightly shorter time to the control and eradication of FMD in small outbreaks when vaccination was used than when culling was used alone. The outbreaks have been so extensive in S America that culling was not an option but vaccination was and was successful. Where vaccination has been used successfully a very high percentage (greater than 80%) of cattle have been vaccinated, young, mature and old. The serotype of the vaccine selected for use must give rise to protective neutralising antibodies against the outbreak FMD virus.b) If vaccination was ineffective in the field against FMD the USA and Europe are unlikely to have spent enormous amounts of money stockpiling and storing FMD vaccines. Nor is Europe likely to recommend vaccination be used in any country near Europe!c) If vaccination was ineffective a policy for global eradication of FMD could not be contemplated. The global vaccination campaign to eradicate poliovirus (in the same virus family) is on course for success except that certain communities in Nigeria are refusing at the moment to allow polio vaccination.d) I cannot think of any human vaccines that prolong outbreaks or make them ineradicable.1 Some human vaccines don't work well but still provide some benefit to individuals (BCG to protect against TB infection for example).2 A few human vaccines have actually made the illness worse (respiratory syncytial virus RSV for example) so have been quickly abandoned.The way the virus was inactivated for vaccine use proved to be the root cause of the problem and work continues to prepare an efficacious RSV vaccine.3 Accidents can happen in which the vaccine is improperly prepared but these are hopefully prevented now by quality control (This happened with FMD vaccine preparation and is now prevented by both a better inactivation process and better quality control standards).4 Some viruses mutate and change their coat protein so quickly that vaccines have not been devised to date that are effective (HCV and HIV), or the vaccine must be reformulated annually as for Influenza. FMD is not in this league. In fact the different serotypes have proven quite stable.5 Even where vaccine has been used to prevent both acute and chronic infections as in hepatitis B it has proven useful. Even if infection is not entirely prevented the infected person does not become an infectious carrier. In the case of FMD I believe that Pirbright showed in one experiment that in some circumstances infection was prolonged by several weeks by FMD vaccination (if vaccination was given very shortly after infection) but this has never been found to be a problem in the field nor has it led to a vaccinated infectious carrier.e) If vaccination had been used in the 2001 FMD epidemic Pirbright could have conducted very informative and useful field trials.f) There is nothing to replace the potential and power of vaccination in controlling virus infections. A new pandemic of influenza will be a global tragedy unless a vaccine is developed against it.I hope this makes some sense and gives a thorough rebuttal.