(Copied from the Devon Inquiry report ) http://www.devon.gov.uk/fminquiry/finalreport/

Extracts from evidence submitted to the Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001

Some 380 people and organisations, from Devon and beyond, submitted evidence to the Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry during its investigations in the late summer and autumn of 2001. Fifty witnesses gave further evidence at the Inquiry’s hearings in public held in Exeter over 8th -12th October 2001.

Together, these submissions reflect vividly the experience of individuals, communities and organisations throughout Devon during the worst Foot and Mouth epidemic ever recorded. They also provide a wealth of ideas about how the crisis might have been better tackled and how the social and economic life of the county can recover in the coming years.

The submissions reveal powerful first-hand accounts of what it was like for people to live through the Foot and Mouth crisis and they also contain the sober reflections of many agencies involved in responding to its immense challenge.

In support of the Inquiry’s final report, the following pages bring together edited extracts from these accounts. These have in many cases been selected (and considerably shortened in length) from more detailed submissions made to the Devon Inquiry. They should not be read therefore as being representative of the full extent of evidence submitted by a particular person or organisation.

These selections are presented in two sections. Key quotes from people attending the Inquiry Hearings are followed by extracts from written submissions. Details of people and organisations who submitted evidence to the Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry can be found in an Appendix.

In due course Devon County Council will place a full copy of all evidence submitted to the Inquiry on public deposit in the Devon Record Office to bear permanent witness to the Foot and Mouth crisis of 2001. For now, these extracts are offered to the reader as a compelling tapestry of insights and experiences, a glimpse of what three short words - “Foot and Mouth” - meant for one county.

These then are the “Voices from Devon”.

Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 49

Voices from Devon

VOICES FROM THE DEVON INQUIRY HEARINGS 8th -12th OCTOBER 2001

It was a disaster from start to finish…MAFF were playing catch up from day one... It was very difficult to obtain information especially in the early days and this only served to feed the rumour mill among farmers… Contiguous culling led to the unnecessary killing of animals, caused great personal distress among farmers and led to MAFF rapidly losing control…

David Hill, Devon County Chairman, National Farmers’ Union

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Some cattle spent days roaming around the village when they bolted after an attempted MAFF cull… Some took four or five shots to kill… It was chaos and shambles…

William Norman, Knowstone Parish Council

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My children had never seen me cry before. They have now… In the space of 24 hours we were advised to move by the MoD and offered holiday accommodation by MAFF... it is clear we were seen as an easy and cheap target… All we want is an apology … we want it to go away and be restored to how it was.

Mark Tomlinson, Local Resident

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We felt as if we were under siege. I am not a farmer but I felt very much the siege mentality… Farmers felt that if there was somebody closer to them who could translate, interpret, advise and reassure, someone they could turn to, that would have been a great help...

Ken Lancaster, Kennerleigh Parish Meeting

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I found the lack of direction and advice most disappointing. People were looking to the school for information and we couldn’t provide them with any as we were not getting any support ourselves… We felt totally isolated…

Mark Raven, Headteacher, Black Torrington Primary School

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Someone needed to take a grip… We needed someone to take government guidance and deploy local resources quickly… Getting accurate information and providing well-grounded feedback is critical to this whole process… It was clear that Government Ministers, however well intentioned, had a lack of understanding of the impact on the ground…

John Varley, Estates Director, Clinton Devon Estates

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I couldn’t believe how poor communication was… Information was haphazard, often vague or contradictory, or simply just refused… What was really required was a single point of regular, good quality information…

Graham Gilbert, Managing Director, Great Western Radio

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There was and is considerable ignorance over how the disease is spread and major pressure to close down the countryside… With hindsight it became clearer that visitors were not a significant factor and therefore some parts of the countryside and vital paths such as the South West Coast path were closed unnecessarily…

Alex Raeder, Senior Land Agent, Devon Region, National Trust

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The sooner command and control is established the sooner order can be brought to chaos…This is not a natural responsibility for civil servants and the Foot and Mouth Emergency plans did not look like they had been developed since the last major outbreak… The military should have been brought in sooner, but with a clear Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 50 remit - a better idea of what they were there to do… Whoever takes the lead in future needs to be better at developing contingency plans and the proper level of training and resources to implement them.

Sir John Evans, Chief Constable, Devon and Cornwall Police

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The images of barbaric killing and primeval disposal of cattle and sheep carcasses have been transmitted around the world… People thought they had gone back to the Dark Ages… I honestly believe we could get the business back next year with effective marketing… But it will not drift back on its own…The challenge for some businesses is to survive until next Easter.

Malcolm Bell, Chief Executive, South West Tourism

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The public got the idea that Devon and Cornwall was closed… As far as the media and the public were concerned, it was essential to get the story over quickly and it was not done.

John Fowler, Chairman, John Fowler Holidays

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Burning pyres were a legitimate news event and became the single most vivid image of Foot and Mouth. It would be naïve to think these images would not get shown… I am very surprised that there wasn’t a game plan in place. In any future emergency, effective communications including the new realities of the mass media must be taken into account.

Chris Foreman, Senior Output Editor, Carlton TV

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Closing off access to people to enjoy the Devon environment is what has affected the Devon economy… As the months went by and guidance evolved, that would not be the decision we would take now…

Nick Atkinson, Chief Executive, Dartmoor National Park Authority

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Farming was the bedrock of employment in rural areas and young people are now faced with a struggle to find jobs and homes and have to look seriously at moving out of the area…

Mark Goodman, County Organiser, Devon Federation of Young Farmers

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The pain and fear in our community was palpable. You could feel it coming over the phone… I would get distressed calls at night from people whose husbands had gone out and they didn’t know where they were… There is a lot of isolation and psychiatric ill health that exists in the countryside and that is compounded by loneliness and financial worries… It is almost like having mud shovelled on your head and sooner or later you are going to go down.

Rev Paul Fitzpatrick, Northmoor Team Ministry

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Farmers are not a group traditionally likely to access mental health services… But the ‘bereavement’ associated with the loss of animals and the hopelessness of the situation is likely to lead to desperation and an increased risk of depressive illness.

Dr Mike Owen, Director of Public Health, North and East Devon Health Authority

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Unless fodder can be brought in from outside we are heading for a disastrous welfare problem this winter – for animals and humans...

Peter Clarke, Farm Crisis Network

Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 51

VOICES FROM THE WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS TO THE DEVON INQUIRY

(submitted August - October 2001) I found the Foot and Mouth an invisible enemy worse than the war in 1939. I was fortunate as most of the vets who came to visit my small flock of sheep were clean, coming from Exeter in the mornings, but fears were very much to the fore when they came later in the day from Highampton or Hatherleigh. I often woke up in the night crying. At one time I could see eight fires burning. Luckily the Foot and Mouth passed me by and my animals were saved. Mrs Watson, Beaworthy

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The village was surrounded by outbreaks of the Foot and Mouth Disease and is also situated on the edge of the Ash Moor Burial Site with the access being at the lower end of the village. At no time was the Parish Council consulted or informed by MAFF or any other agency (with the exception of one letter from Devon County Council) regarding any matters appertaining to this crisis. The Parish Council, therefore, was unable to address the concerns and anxieties of worried parishioners. The workload on officials of the Parish Council has been tremendous as they unsuccessfully sought answers to parishioners’ concerns. Due to many changes of personnel at MAFF/DEFRA there has been no continuity. Meeth Parish Council

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Financially: Income stopped as unable to sell stock. When able to sell, animals not at best - so lower sale value, lower price and extra costs. No provision by Government to replace income or support farmers at all. Emotionally: Myself, my husband and 2 children frequently in tears, constantly tired, frequently unable to see any form of light at end of tunnel. Support given by friends, family and local people kept us going. Socially: All social activities stopped: pub skittles, bingos, YFC meetings etc. Did not see anyone outside farm. Family worried about visiting. Ms Boundy, Tiverton

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I am not a farmer or a landowner but the Foot and Mouth outbreak here in Devon affected my family and me more than most. How many farmers had less than 24 hours to vacate their homes; possibly never to return? How many landowners gave their children an hour to pack one small cardboard box of toys before being forced to leave their homes like World War II refugees? The hell that my wife, children and I had to endure can only be imagined. The misery was down solely to the arrogance, rudeness, thoughtlessness and sheer bullying of one organisation - MAFF. On the evening of 5th April a representative of the MOD phoned me and asked if I would be available the following morning to speak to regarding some roadworks on the lane that runs outside our house. This, needless to say, seemed strange so I contacted some of my neighbours who joined my wife and me at our house the following day. As we sat in our sitting room we were told that: MAFF and the MOD were to tarmac ‘our private’ lane for a distance of approximately 600 metres, from right through a field gate to an area of 100 acres which was culm grass, tarmac the huge portion of that 100 acres, dig 18 burial pits each the size of a football pitch, slaughter animals on site and then bury up to 400,000 animals there. These animals would be transported to the Ash Moor burial site in upwards of 10,000 lorries, each passing within 6 ft of our front door. The MOD Officer strongly advised us to leave as soon as possible as life would not be “worth living” and that work would start the next morning - less than 24 hours hence. Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 52 In a direct line these pits were to be and three are within 200 metres of our house. All this information given to us in such an unexpected manner was met by stunned silence. I am an ex-Metropolitan Police Officer; it takes a lot to upset me. In the room with me was an ex-Army Officer who has spent many years in Northern Ireland, two farmers, a nurse and a couple more of our neighbours - not a group of people to be easily shocked but we were. The Army Officer (who through the next few weeks of upset and mayhem we were forced to endure was the only honourable person we dealt with) did not know the lane that it was intended to tarmac was private. He organised at our request a Public Meeting the following morning - the 7th - at Petrockstowe Village Hall. At the meeting attended by many hundreds of people and media I tried to speak on three occasions but burst into tears of sadness, frustration, helplessness and anger each time. After the meeting I had an appointment at our house with a surveyor. He told me point blank that our 130- year-old lodge house would not stand the vibration of 10,000 lorries and that was always hoping that one did not hit the house. The house would not be habitable again - ever. Once this ill-conceived, panic driven, dangerous experiment was revealed to the general public in all its horror a tide of opposition began. Meetings started with MAFF and Imerys, the French company that own the local clay works upon which the land covered by Ash Moor stands to try to find an alternative access route that did not necessitate coming past our house. The company sold MAFF the land and if they had also given them access to the clay works in the first place instead of making them try to come down the private lane I would not have had to cuddle my three children nightly as they cried themselves to sleep. Negotiations lasted for over a week during which time my wife and I had to find a house to move to - MAFF didn’t - prepare our children to not only move but possibly never to return and to take turns sleeping as the lack of trust we had in MAFF led us strongly to believe they would just steamroller a road past our house in the middle of the night. At 8 a.m. one morning the week following our first notification of this whole project, my two sons ran into our bedroom crying that there were lorries and workmen outside our house. There were in fact steamrollers, a JCB, a tarmac machine, lorries, vans and lots of people. Before I could stop them, the JCB took the top six inches off the lane. I was told point blank they were there to turn our un-metalled lane into a tarmac road. Our solicitor was quickly on scene and work ceased though calming a distraught 13, 10 and 6 year old took a lot longer. To now cut a very long, frightening, upsetting story short. MAFF finally gained access to the clay works but at what cost? Financially, who knows? Emotionally, we know. My children had never seen me cry before April 2001. They have now. Lots. If it were not for the fact that my wife and I love each other so very much and support one another to be good parents, I dread to think how this could have affected my family. Short term: my children didn’t eat, sleep, learn, play or do anything ‘normally’. I sympathise with every refugee I see on the News now; like them I was living in fear for my family and home. Long term: I don’t know what effect it will have on any of us but like the ‘Sword of Damocles’ the Ash Moor pit is still hanging over us ready to be used on the whim of politicians. No one knows what we have been through. To lose your animals must be soul destroying but to have your home ripped out from under you at a moment’s notice is mind, body and soul destroying. Many, many farmers, some unknown to me, phoned to give me support and for that we will be eternally grateful. If it were not for our friends - who knows what might have been - or will be. Mr Tomlinson, Petrockstowe Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 53 The Borough is the largest geographical District Council area in Devon and one of the largest Districts in England. It covers an area of almost 116,000 hectares, which is slightly larger than the area contained within the M25 London orbital motorway. However, its population is less than 50,000 people and it is therefore the most sparsely populated area of Southern England. The first outbreak of the Foot and Mouth Disease in the South West of England was confirmed at Highampton in West Devon on the 24th February 2001. From then until June 17th, when the last outbreak occurred at Bondleigh, West Devon, there have been 72 cases in the Borough involving 34,000 animals and larger number of farms subject to contiguous culls. There have been 96 animal disposal sites in West Devon, nearly all pyre sites. Mr Incoll, West Devon Borough Council

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Being within the 3 kilometre zones of several Foot and Mouth Disease infections, my holding (40 sheep) was inspected nine times by MAFF vets between the 28th March and 22nd May. Neighbouring farms, all within the same zones, with stocks ranging from 250 to 4,500 animals (pigs, cattle and sheep) were not inspected or were only visited much later in that period when they applied for movement licences. In Easter week there were 10,000 animals heaped in the gateways of fields in Chulmleigh/Meshaw parishes, all blatantly exposed to public view. The trauma of such unnecessary exposure is reflected in the need for the local school to write to the GCSE Examination Boards warning that the concentration and performance of local children has been significantly affected by the management of Foot and Mouth Disease. Locally, detailed observation of the delayed incineration of infected carcasses and varying wind directions more accurately predicted the occurrences of fresh outbreaks. Local pyres were seen to smoulder, at times barely warming some carcasses on the periphery of the fire. Dark smoke from coal and impregnated timber rose rapidly from the fires but separated from a steamy, fatty white vapour that drifted close to the ground. Local motorists driving through the smoke and vapour found small patches of unburned flesh on bonnets and the tyres of their vehicles. Dr Pay, Chulmleigh

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The initial impact for many young people was disruption to education. This has impacted on those at school, FE Colleges and other specialist colleges. Young people were unable to attend lessons and had to cancel appointments with personal advisers. There are four areas where Foot and Mouth has impacted upon young people. These are: 1.The emotional impact of being on a farm where all your animals have been slaughtered on your doorstep, literally in some cases. Living on a farm 24 hours a day with parents who are stressed fearing for their future could not have been easy. There has been a considerable impact on those young people who have lived near a funeral pyre. In the Holsworthy area you could see up to 12 funeral pyres going at any one time. The smell was very unpleasant and a constant reminder of what was going on. 2.Isolation was the next issue. Rural young people find this to be a big issue for them in normal times but Foot and Mouth made this many times worse. Farmers were so terrified of getting the disease that they barricaded themselves and their families in for several weeks. Even when the initial fears subsided, young people were allowed back to school but were not allowed out in the evenings. Some were actually sent away to stay with relatives until Foot and Mouth subsided. 3.For those who were sitting exams this was a particularly difficult time. There is little doubt that many will have been affected and this will have a knock-on effect on their future. 4.Career choices for some changed in the space of a few weeks. Whilst farming and related industries have been undergoing a fundamental change over the last few years, Foot and Mouth will have acted as a catalyst. Many will now not have the option of going home to work on the farm and they will need support to plan their futures. Some will feel trapped in a position where they have to look outside farming but loyalty to the family means they stay on, often working for little, if any, pay. Ms Rudge, Connexions Cornwall and Devon Ltd Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 54 The impact on the Trust’s farming tenants generally has reflected the impact of the disease on the wider farming community within Devon. We are particularly pleased with the way in which the NFU in Devon conducted itself. It provided good advice, worked with partners and the excellent communication of their bulletins on a regular basis was a help to us all. I regret to say this was in contrast with that received from MAFF (now DEFRA). In addition to the impact on farming, the Trust was severely affected by closure of its houses and gardens, and countryside car parks. Whilst some houses were able to open in time for Easter, many of our major properties missed out on what is one of the peak periods for visitors. By the end of April visitors were down by 64% on the previous year, and at the end of May 42%. The Trust is still assessing the total cost of the outbreak on all its properties but our most up to date estimates indicate our loss to be approximately £800,000. If one uses the multiplier in our ‘Valuing our Environment’ document, the real loss to the economy in Devon is £5.2 million. Mr Cook, Devon Region, National Trust

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Effect of Foot and Mouth on Farm Accommodation Businesses General pattern: End February to Easter, enquiries stopped, cancellations flooded in. Cash flow dried up, so operators unable to advertise in 2002 brochures, and enhancement of facilities put on hold. Summer: Farms near coasts, cities or with own web sites had a good July and August. Others had a patchy July, but generally a good August. Autumn: Very patchy. Some farms getting better bookings than last year. Others are well down. Things are well below normal for many farms and the feeling is that walkers and cyclists are not coming in their normal numbers. Percentages by which Bed and Breakfast bookings were down in 2001 against same month in 2000 for Dartmoor: March - 91% down April - 81% down Easter - 77% down May - 65% down Mr Head, Devon Farms Accommodation

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The Estate has been affected in many different ways; emotional, operational and financial. We firmly believe that there are some ‘positives’ to be taken out of the nightmare of the past few months. From the Estates’ point of view, we are working as a team like never before to find new structures and better ways of working. We are committed to crafting a new model for our farm and related businesses, which is relevant to Devon with its unique set of circumstances and opportunities. The most significant impact on the Estate was in North Devon on the Heanton Estate where all bar one of the Home and tenant farms suffered livestock culls. Lord Clinton’s herd of pedigree Red Devon cattle with lineage dating back to 1888 was slaughtered as part of these culls. As far as one of our farms was concerned it is difficult to think how the process could have been improved. The diagnosis was confirmed late afternoon on Thursday and the animals despatched immediately. The next stage, Friday, the diagnosis was confirmed by a second vet, there being some query as to whether it was Foot and Mouth Disease. The slaughter team had arrived by mid-morning; it consisted of a large team of drovers, slaughter men and an army liaison person. The work was done quickly, efficiently, with respect, and to a high standard of professionalism. In mid-afternoon, when the work had been completed, a MAFF technician, contractor representative and Environment Agency representative arrived to deal with disposal arrangements. They quickly established that burial was not an option. A pyre site, together with access was agreed upon, having particular regard to technical and other sensitive considerations. Mr Varley, Clinton Devon Estates Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 55 Survey of Village Shops in Devon - August 2001 Shop A Turnover approximately 10% down between February and August and up to 30% down for a tenday period over crisis point. Shop B Turnover between March and July was 20% down and could have been worse had the shop not adapted and organised a delivery service to affected farms. Shop C Shop turnover is up to 30% down and diverse activities established to exploit tourism have all ceased. Shop D Turnover down 10% February to July. Shop E Turnover down 20% for February and March but now approaching pre-Foot and Mouth levels. Shop F Turnover is down approximately 15% and probably more in real terms. Shop G Foot and Mouth crisis halted progress resulting in 20%-25% downturn. Shop H Shop turnover down 20%-25% during peak three weeks of crisis. Now recovered to approximately 5%-10% deficit. Shop I Shop turnover down 50% and one staff member laid off. Shop J Reductions of up to 40% in shop turnover. Mr Geeves, St Austell, Cornwall

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From time to time I am paid by a natural history and environmental survey company to carry out field surveys of invertebrate animal species. The surveys are particularly important in Spring and early Summer for such insects as solitary bees (some nationally rare) which are key habitat indicators. The Foot and Mouth brought such investigations to a standstill. Not only did I lose useful income, but more importantly, the firm that uses me was hit financially as it lost several important contracts without warning and is now in difficulties. (It employs 5 fulltime and 4 part-time like me). Mr Haes, Hayle, Cornwall

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From the 22nd April to the 4th May we had to suffer the relentless and constant smoke and fumes from the pyre approximately a 1/4 mile away. This affected our health in the short term and who knows about the long term. The pyre was lit on Sunday, the 22nd April, about 200 yards from the nearest homes. The first that we knew about it was the police informing us to close our doors and windows (this was after the fire had been lit). The whole area was covered with thick black smoke for days and also noxious fumes. On the 26th April we telephoned our District Councillor. He told us his hands were tied, he was not even allowed near the site of the pyre and that, as we also agreed, MAFF were a law unto themselves and did not have to account for their actions. In the meantime a friend who lives next to the farm in question informed us that lorries were going to the farm with carcasses from other farms in the area. Again the local populace were not informed. All we could do was put up with the fumes day and night. We were kept totally in the dark. We suffered respiratory problems and a feeling of weakness for several days. So did several other people we spoke to. We were also told that the air quality was not being monitored. We also had a large vegetable garden and we could not eat our produce because of the fallout from the fire. Mr Trainor and Ms Norman, Barnstaple

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I am a semi-retired farmer with approximately 55 acres of land. At the time of the outbreak of Foot and Mouth in the village I had some of my fields in use for grass growing and two fields, on the eastern edge of my property, in use as grazing for 56 sheep and their lambs. Lambing was almost finished. These sheep belonged to a man who had rented my grass for grazing during the winter and had been unable to move or tend them due to the Foot and Mouth restrictions. I and my wife had dealt with the lambing ourselves. Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 56 We also had 36 cattle in a large stock shed in the centre of the property. Eight of these were mine, the rest belonged to my daughter who has a farm near Exeter. We were bringing them on for her, they were in calf Friesians and were to be her future dairy cows. On Sunday, 13th May, I was driving my tractor in one of the eastern fields next to a field behind the Masons’ Arms Inn which I call the ‘Glebe Ground’. At around 8 p.m. I heard the sound of gunshots coming from that field. They sounded like a shotgun. When I drove close to the hedge I saw five cattle dead, three men who I didn’t know wearing white overalls, and the rest of the cattle in the field were charging around the field. I shouted to the men and the cattle then ran towards me and found their way through a thick Devon bank and thorn hedge, which included three strands of barbed wire, six in places. They say that animals do not have facial expressions. I shall take the look of terror on the faces of those poor beasts to my grave. I have been a farmer or engaged in farming for all of my life but I have never experienced such a sight. Nineteen eventually got into my field amongst the sheep. Their eyes were staring, they were panting with their tongues hanging out and many were bleeding from wounds caused by the barbed wire or shot. I couldn’t get close enough to them. Attempts the next day to move the cattle from my field all failed due to their agitated state. At one stage, with no one closer than 50 metres and no white suits in sight, the animals forced their way through another lesser hedge. Despite suggestions on less stressful ways to dispose of these 19 cattle, they were all killed by a marksman on the 14th May. (I have heard that two other cattle from the same field escaped into other farms nearby). Mr Willmetts, Knowstone

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I have two pedigree pet Berkshire pigs (rare breeds), litter brothers, Gordon and Gregory. I am a widow and I have no family or living relatives. Gordon and Gregory are my children. During the Foot and Mouth crisis I suffered so much stress, worry, sleepless nights etc., my health was badly affected and I required treatment from my doctor. I bought the pigs last year on the advice of friends and my doctor to help me get over the loss of my husband, two friends from cancer, two much loved horses and my husband’s much loved Berkshire boar, Toby (all these losses happened in a short space of time). I could not face losing Gordon and Gregory. Mrs Trumper, Farringdon

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We were not affected personally or financially in any way by the Foot and Mouth Disease crisis but my husband is a retired bank manager, and up until his retirement many of his customers were farmers (most now retired). In our experience 99% of the farmers are of the honest “salt of the earth” types with great integrity. Mrs Chave, West Hill

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We are service engineers, self employed, repairing domestic appliances. At the outbreak of Foot and Mouth the telephone more or less stopped ringing for five months. August was fairly busy and September is slow. We lived down a farm lane and we are sure that this is a contributing factor as is the slowdown in rural economy. Mrs Tappin, Pyworthy

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Up until 1994 there was regular contact between Devon County Council’s Emergency Planning Service and MAFF for war planning purposes. Since then contact has continued, but has been infrequent. I am not aware that my predecessor was ever contacted to discuss a MAFF Foot and Mouth Contingency Plan, and such a Plan has never been brought to my notice. Mr Thomasson, Devon County Council Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 57 Divisions occurred within people and between different groups - “us and them”. The “us” became narrower and smaller - only the immediate family. Thus psychological isolation exacerbated physical isolation. People withdrew from the nurturing of the community. The dangerous “not us” became wider and bigger: farmers, walkers; MAFF/DEFRA; those with no bio-security and those with excellent bio-security; those who left, those who remained; organic farmers, postmen, people with dogs; horse drivers and horse riders; children at school and not; open pubs and closed pubs; those compensated and those not; those who cheated and those who played straight. Suspicion, guilt, panic, fear and abandonment were all apparent. What is left is lack of confidence, depression, lack of ability to respond, and despair. Miss Roberts, Holne

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218 dairy cows and calves killed in contiguous cull. Left in farmyards for 16 days. No payment for seven weeks. C and D work ongoing still. Payments few and far between. Trying to keep workman on. Animals must be killed in 24 hours – ours were 5 days. Animals must be destroyed in 24 hours – ours were 17 days. A and L Gifford, Milton Damarel

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Hunting ceased immediately the Foot and Mouth epidemic started to develop and this led to an immediate loss of revenue of approximately 10% of the Hunt’s annual takings. The epidemic also led to the cancellation of a number of hunt events, most noticeably the popular dog show in April which was rescheduled and then subsequently abandoned. The event should have provided a platform for a number of local traders. Our social events, such as the hunt puppy show in July have also been cancelled. The hound breeding programme was also stopped, resulting in only two of our own hounds being bred to join the pack next season instead of the usual eight to ten hounds. We now face the prospect of no hunting taking place from the start of our season until at least Christmas time, possibly later. This puts our organisation in financial peril. Mr Jewitt, Stoke Hill Beagles

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We operate 14 self-catering Holiday Parks in Devon and Cornwall and accommodate in the region of 300,000 visitors each year. My company entailed approximately £1.5m in unnecessary vacancies for accommodation compared to the previous three-year occupancy. The point I wish to make emphatically is despite Foot and Mouth there was no need for these visitors to have stayed away. When we were able to talk to clients who had booked it was easy to explain to them that Devon was not closed and seaside holiday parks continue to operate normally with virtually no inconvenience to our guests. The impression the public received through the media and so on was that Devon and Cornwall were closed and that they could not come on holiday. We are 100% behind the farming community and their fight against Foot and Mouth. We realise their problems and recognise that without the farmers the Devon countryside would not be as attractive as it is now. I would like to say we acknowledge the splendid work of Malcolm Bell of South West Tourism who with a minimum of support tried to bring common sense to bear. Mr Fowler, Ilfracombe

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As the Headteacher of a small rural primary school I am concerned about the psychological health of the children living in this area who have been exposed to the effects of the Foot and Mouth outbreak. My concerns are: • The long-term effects on children who witnessed the wholesale slaughter of their parents/grandparents/near relatives’ flocks and herds. • The effects that social and emotional isolation has had on children being surrounded by adults who were themselves so devastated by events that they were unable to help their own children through the crisis. Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 58 • The effects on children who in the midst of the trauma were sent away to stay with relatives or friends. • The effects of the sight and smells of slaughtered animals, given that many of the animals were ‘personal friends’ of the children through perhaps having watched their birth, bottle-fed lambs/calves or kept them in the farm kitchen for the first few days of life. Mrs Rudman, High Bickington Primary School

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Being wholesalers in the sock and thermal underwear market we have been hit very hard by the closure of the footpaths and open areas. Even now, with areas being opened up again, sales are still badly affected due to the public not having walked all summer and therefore not needing to replace their equipment. Sales dropped from £84,187 in the period March - July 2000 to £37,383 during the same period in 2001. Mr Moore, Ottery St Mary

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We are only small farmers. We have lived within the 3 kilometre zone of Foot and Mouth Disease since the beginning of the outbreak. We have lived through virtually every negative emotion known to man during that time - fear, anger, frustration, despair and now physical and mental exhaustion. The vast majority of our friends and neighbours have fallen victim to the dreaded disease, and we recognise and have tremendous sympathy with the trauma that they have lived through. But now, at least, they know exactly where they stand, and have a little time to think about their future. We are still [in May 2001] in a nightmare. We have been subject to every other day veterinary inspections for most of the three months. We now find ourselves in the position of having had no income since the outbreak began. We have no savings to fall back on, as we have spent the last 25 years paying off the mortgage on the farm. My husband works on average 100 hours a week, and often over 20 hours every day but we are now almost bankrupt. The bank rang again yesterday wanting to know how and when we were going to put things right, but we have no answers. I have constantly been phoning all the help line numbers that have been given, seeking information and advice, but no one has the knowledge or the power to help me. Our small farm now stands alone, surrounded by almost 7,000 empty acres, devoid of any sheep or cattle. Although we have managed to survive, we feel very much as though we have not only been fighting this dreadful disease but battling against our Government. We are the forgotten people. We struggle on, but really wonder why. We have no money, an ever increasing overdraft, stock that no one wants, and very little optimism for the future. Mr and Mrs Johns, Sheepwash

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I write as Church of England parish priest in charge of seven rural parishes, three of which were directly affected by the disease. I think that what has concerned me most as an onlooker is the way in which the outbreaks have led to a rapid breakdown in relationships between farmers and “the Ministry”. The common enemy has not been the disease but the Ministry, its apparatus, and officials. This suggests to me that the disease has been the catalyst for something which was developing over time. The opprobrium heaped on the Ministry has not been wholly deserved but (I guess) largely so. Rev Dr Jones, Bishops Nympton

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Quicke’s are traditional farmhouse cheese makers, making about 400t mainly traditional cheddar from our own and neighbours’ milk. Cheese is stored for around one year on farm before sale. The cow dairy is across a concrete roadway from the cheese dairy enabling milk to be pumped without use of a vehicle. Whey is fed to pigs on site. Cheese is stored in specialist buildings or buildings converted out of farm use, in close proximity to farming activities. In April 1999, as part of our routine risk assessment, I became concerned about the risk of Foot and Mouth Disease to our business. I asked our insurer to quote us for business interruption from destruction of cheese Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 59 stocks from Foot and Mouth Disease. They found great difficulty in placing this insurance at Lloyds as no one had asked for it before. In May 2000, I received a request from a Ministry vet, who visited with a MAFF veterinary adviser who was drawing up MAFF contingency plans for Foot and Mouth. I walked her round our site to establish whether our cheese would be at risk if we were to become infected. She stated that in her view, the cheese was in sufficient close proximity (i.e. less than 200 metres from the animals) that it would be considered a risk, not on the grounds of its containing Foot and Mouth, but that the Foot and Mouth virus might stick to the rind and so get taken out of the farm. I asked what treatment (if any) would be acceptable to allow a licence to sell rather than destroy. It was her view that the cheese would be destroyed to be on the safe side but she promised to look into it. I chased her up at monthly intervals on the telephone, and with a letter on the 25th September; she replied on the 5th October 2000 saying she would pass it on to Pirbright. In December 2000 I received a reply from the Deputy Head of Veterinary Exotic Diseases Team at MAFF; his reply, so far removed in time from my original request, failed to answer the question. I spoke with him on the phone in January 2001; he was unaware of which disinfectants were permitted, and whether cheese would be fit to eat after use. He promised to send me the relevant MAFF order. I contacted MAFF on the 5th February 2001 about insurance for cheese in the event of a Foot and Mouth outbreak, as I had read there was a Working Party on the subject. Uniquely I received a reply in ten days from MAFF who forwarded my letter to a commercial consultant preparing research for the Working Party. I spoke with him almost immediately. The letter was also forwarded for someone to give me details of disinfectants. They replied on the 26th March 2001 (into the Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak) again losing the point - they were telling me how disinfectants are approved, not which ones. I replied, asking for clarification on the fate of cheese. By this time, many cheesemakers around the country had been told by LVOs that their cheese would be destroyed in the event of infections. Many of us, at considerable cost, moved cheese off farm. Our own cheese director suffered a fatal heart attack in May, brought on in part in my view by the extreme anxiety caused by the threat to his life’s work. M Quicke, Newton St Cyres

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I am a development worker for the Pre-School Learning Alliance in the Tavistock and Okehampton areas. During the outbreak I was unable to visit pre-schools, playgroups etc., due to their very rural locations. Many of the pre-schools were affected as their children could not travel off farms etc. Several pre-schools closed for up to six weeks due to staff or families who attend living on farms or because of their location close to farmland. Many groups were unable to fund-raise or hold social events or trips for the children. Morale was very low in both adults and children. Children were aware of the slaughter of animals and even acted it out in their play. Ms Calvert, Lydford

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My neighbour rang me on Sunday, the 14th May 2001 to say he had got Foot and Mouth. Our land was contiguous with his but we did not worry too much as we had not put any stock on this block of land. I rang MAFF on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of that week as we were ditching and fencing. They assured me that I could continue to work there (we did not go near the place!). Wednesday evening about 10 pm another neighbour rang me to ask if I knew we had a dead bullock on our land with a plastic bag on its head. After a lot of enquiries it appears the animal was shot on Tuesday am. A vet who I spoke to on Wednesday pm rang Thursday a.m. to say that the animal was being removed that day. Eventually picked up Friday pm I then queried with MAFF working and stocking possibilities. They told me I could do what I wished. Mr Bavin, East Anstey Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 60 I advertise Bed and Breakfast in the Women’s Institute Monthly Magazine “Home and Country”. We live overlooking Torbay and part of my advert states “adjacent Coastal Path” which we are. So far, for six monthly insertions, I have had four enquiries and two bookings only, just disastrous. Mrs Burton, Paignton

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On planning issues, the Council was faced with difficulties by the development of the two major disposal sites at Arscott and Ash Moor. Whilst recognising the speed and urgency of the national emergency, the selection processes for these sites ignored the appropriate planning regulations which were required even though the developments were on Crown land. Had the planning process been properly followed, consultation would have been put in place albeit in the very short term which would have enabled the Council to reflect local views which would have led to a comprehensive response. Mr Brasington, Torridge District Council

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The first case of Foot & Mouth disease in Devon was confirmed on 24 February and the last case confirmed on 17 June 2001. Over the intervening 16 week period a total of 174 cases were confirmed and approximately 4,500 premises subject to Form D notices. In the context of the number of cases in England and Wales, Devon lies second only to Cumbria. Primarily concentrated in the north and west of the county, isolated pockets also occurred in the eastern and south western most parts of the county and in Dartmoor National Park. The Infected Area in Devon was lifted on 1 August. The measures pursued by MAFF to prevent the spread of the disease, in addition to the slaughter of animals and the burning of carcasses on infected premises, included the culling of stock on contiguous premises. Further animals were slaughtered on welfare grounds. This led to a considerable backlog of carcasses awaiting disposal. At its peak in April almost 200,000 carcasses, primarily sheep, pigs and cattle were reported to be lying on farms, awaiting disposal, with the prospect that this number would increase even further as the contiguous culling programme continued. Many of these carcasses had been there for a considerable period of days and even weeks, with consequent concerns about their decomposition, consequent potential contamination of ground water and risk to public health and amenity, as well as reducing the effectiveness of the culling programme itself. By the end of April, through recalculation, changes in the extent of the culling programme and through ongoing disposal, the number of residual carcasses in the county was reported to have been reduced to around 25,000, by early May to 5,500; and by late May there was no backlog. A number of methods of disposal appropriate to the different type of carcass were pursued. These included rendering, incineration, land fill on approved sites, mass burning and mass burial or on-farm burning or burial in accordance with MAFF and Department of Health guidance. All of the above disposal methods were pursued in Devon, although the potential for on farm burial was removed at a very early stage due to the Environment Agency’s concerns about the potential contamination due to the high water table conditions then generally existing in the county. The use of pyres in the County is understood to have ceased on 3 May. DEFRA in June confirmed that there were some 140 small on-farm sites in Devon where carcasses had been burnt. Existing landfill sites at Heathfield near Newton Abbot and Deepmoor, near Torrington, were used for the disposal of animals culled under the contiguous premises and the welfare disposal scheme. While the greater proportion of carcasses were disposed of ‘on-farm’ by pyre or in the later stages by rendering or enhanced incineration, at the peak of the crisis MAFF considered that mass disposal and handling sites were required to meet the envisaged backlog of carcasses. Five such sites were initially promoted but of these only three large facilities at Arscott Farm near Holsworthy, Ashmoor Fields at Meeth and Westlake Farm at Oakford were progressed. Those not pursued were proposals for the burning of carcasses from non-infected premises on sites at Wortham Farm, Lifton and Ellacott Barton, Bratton Clovelly. Mr Chorlton, Devon County Council Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 61 One of the most significant messages and commanding lessons to be learned from the outbreak of the disease in Devon is the importance of the Public Rights of Way network to the economy of the County and the dramatic impact of its closure on the economic and social well being of the County. The administrative County of Devon has over 4,900 kms of Public Rights of Way within its 409 parishes. This comprises some 6,100 individual paths, of which 3,700 kms (76%) are public footpaths. 1140 kms (23%) are public bridleways and some 60 kms (1%) are byways open to all traffic. In addition to Rights of Way there are a further 800 kms of unsurfaced County roads, bringing the total recreational network for the County to approximately 5,700 kms. (This compares with the Public Rights of Way network in England which extends to 188700 kms (78% public footpaths, 17% public bridleways, 2% byways open to all traffic and 3% restricted byways). The Devon network includes parts of the South West Coast Path National Trail (300 kms) and regionally important recreational routes including the Tarka Trail and Two Moors Way (total 997 kms including road and permissive sections) which, together with the remaining Public Rights of Way network, are a significant resource for countryside access and for tourism, as has been so dramatically evidenced by the impact of their closure during the current Foot & Mouth outbreak. On 27th February, three days after the first confirmed case in Devon, the Minister of State for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, published an Order allowing Local Authorities to close public footpaths and bridleways under ‘The Foot & Mouth Disease (Amendment) (England) Order 2001’. With effect from 28th February 2001 all public footpaths, bridleways and cycleways in the administrative area of the County of Devon, other than those lying wholly within urban areas, were closed and the movement of any person on any such right of way, without lawful authority, prohibited. Contravention of the Declaration constituted an offence under the Animal Health Act 1981 and any person found guilty of such an offence was liable to a fine of up to £5,000. The closure of the Public Rights of Way network and the perceived message ‘the countryside is closed’ had a dramatic adverse impact on tourism and the rural economy in Devon. The report commissioned by the County Council from the Agricultural Economics Unit of the University of Exeter (which assessed the position as of 19th March 2001) estimated that over the next 12 months 8700 jobs could be lost in the tourism sector and allied businesses. The reduction in income was estimated as £196m in the tourism sector. A second part of the study commissioned from the Agricultural Economics Unit was to establish empirical evidence of the loss of business and the extent of jobs being lost in the accommodation sector. The upshot is that of those accommodation providers that responded to the questionnaire, 914 jobs had been lost already by early April 2001. The economic impact has since been updated and the estimates of income lost and potential job losses revised in the light of events since the previous report and with the benefit of further survey material which has become available. The Devon Recovery Plan, published in July, estimates the potential loss of income to Devon through tourism spending to be £107.5m and the loss of jobs in tourism, 3,332. Mr Chorlton, Devon County Council

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I am a registered blind charity worker, now celebrating my thirtieth year in charity work. Since Friday 30th March 2001, I have generated £12,505.76p for the Green Wellie Campaign over 48 collections and exhibiting at the Honiton Show, this year’s Devon County Show, and at the Royal Cornwall Show. Mr Bond, Lympstone

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In the West Country, principally in Devon, twelve members of staff (out of thirty) were dealing solely with FMDrelated welfare problems at the height of the crisis. One member of staff was engaged full time in running our brokerage scheme to ensure supplies of feed and bedding to farmers in need. It is estimated that we have devoted over 5,000 men hours to dealing with this crisis. The RSPCA helped over 750 farmers with licence applications and supplies of feed and bedding, and gave support and advice to many more by telephone. The RSPCA supplied 62,000 bales of hay, straw and silage; 112 Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 62 tons of feed; and ten lorry loads of woodchips for bedding. Over 103,000 animals benefited from this operation. Regional Superintendent Tressider, RSPCA

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It was established early on that to control the outbreak, without vaccination, livestock suspected of having Foot and Mouth Disease should be culled within 24 hours and contiguous stock within 48 hours. A case was confirmed in North Devon on Thursday 22nd March. The stock was culled 3 days later, Sunday 25th March. The neighbouring farmer was told on Saturday (as he had expected) that his 1,400 breeding ewes plus lambs would be culled. This stock was eventually slaughtered 11 days after the original outbreak, on Monday 2nd April, but only after much pleading to have the cull carried out on welfare grounds. At this point it was confirmed that these animals had now developed Foot and Mouth Disease. Stock on another contiguous farm was confirmed positive on Wednesday 4th April, 13 days after the original outbreak. Stock on yet another farm, also adjoining the original source, was still running around the fields, 14 days after the initial outbreak. Following this outbreak, three local farms, previously unaffected, were confirmed with Foot and Mouth Disease on the 7th April, the 10th April and the 14th April. We are convinced that if the contiguous cull had not been delayed for eleven days, those new cases above and the cull of contiguous farms including our own could have been avoided. Mr and Ms Thomas, Muddiford

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Although a small community, we have approximately 30 small businesses (not including accommodation providers). Our local shop, garage and pub were badly affected. The garage and convenience store suffered a considerable loss of income and was forced to lay off staff and reduce opening hours. The visitors have not come back. Our local farrier has been badly affected with work almost completely drying up with no trekking and hunting. There has only been a minimal recovery now that bridleways are open. There are fewer visitors riding but there is no hunting. With businesses looking to make savings where they can, casual cleaning staff were not employed, waitresses not engaged, garden maintenance reduced to a minimum, odd jobs deferred, painting and decorating delayed, and improvements cancelled. This stopped the usual flow of the local economy, which effectively distributed the money brought into the area by visitors from elsewhere into many local pockets. Everyone has suffered. With Foot and Mouth Disease having such a profound effect on every aspect of the rural community, the confidence of local businesses has suffered. They are less likely to expand, less likely to risk a planned venture, less willing to weather the hard times and increasingly less able to withstand the hard knocks. The consequences of this outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease will still be felt for some years to come. Cutcombe Parish Council, Somerset

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This parish (9 miles x 4 miles in size) had three actual cases of Foot and Mouth Disease, a great deal of contiguous culling and was completely covered by ‘D’ notices. The population of approximately 500 people is located in various small settlements and isolated farms/houses. There is one restaurant, tea rooms at Roadford reservoir, a school, three chapels, one church and various holiday lets. There is no pub, shop or post office. Good things: There was clear evidence of the ‘wartime spirit’ as the barriers went up and the neighbours rallied round. The telephones were in constant use as people sought to bolster spirits, keep in contact and find out the latest news. This lasted for many weeks until the position clarified and ad hoc survival arrangements were formalised. The sense of community was tested and not found wanting. Mr Hannaford, Broadwoodwidger Parish Council

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Our tiny parish has several small farms, but one large dairy farm of around 100 cows and 50 or so sheep. The parish pulled together to be protective of it. For some time all movements of people outside the parish seemed voluntarily restricted. People did not gather together. Everyone tried to support the farmers. The village hall Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 63 closed for several weeks. The church lost income as it closed for twelve weeks (it shares an entrance with the dairy farm), pastoral visiting was restricted and there could be no fund-raising events. We had no library van for 4 – 5 months. Depending on the wind, we smelt and saw smoking pyres from all directions but especially the ones two weeks after Easter. The smoke was appalling. Mercifully our parish cows and sheep were not affected. We had no Parish Council meetings for three months. Communication was by telephone. Mrs Littlewood, Nymet Rowland Parish Council/St Bartholomew’s Church, Nymet Rowland

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Mrs M. telephones me to ask me what will happen to her sheep which are in a field over the road from a FMD case nearby. Whilst we are discussing the risk etc., to her pet sheep, MAFF are shooting free range bullocks and they have gone mad breaking through the hedges and charging through other stock in their fear. Three weeks after Mr C. applied for a licence to slaughter his very distressed fat lambs, stranded in a mud field full of swedes and swimming on their bellies in mud, the licence arrives – the day after all his stock had been killed as a contiguous holding. Ms Vere, Morchard Bishop

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Our horse riding on Dartmoor business was closed down due to the restrictions imposed to control Foot and Mouth Disease in the Dartmoor area. We were severely affected by the Foot and Mouth Disease but we are now well on the road to recovery partly due to the efforts of the Regional Development Agency. Our trading figures for July and August were the same as last year if not better which could have been partly due to the marketing efforts of the Regional Development Agency (plus our own efforts of course). Also we have just been awarded the full £15,000 grant from the RDA and we have found this grant reasonably simple to apply for. Mr and Mrs Newbolt-Young, Widecombe-in-the-Moor

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Our business was affected in that it was ended by the cull of our herd. After fighting the contiguous cull for 21 days, we were eventually beaten when MAFF sited a huge mass super pyre on an individual field adjacent to my farm, the wider of implications of which led to the cull of my herd. Living in a parish completely devastated by Foot and Mouth with only, I believe, one farm left stocked, we were well in the midst of things, but had mistakenly concentrated on fighting the disease and the largely irrelevant contiguous cull, never expecting MAFF’s own pyre building actions to result in the loss of our herd. Mr Easterbrook, Bridestowe

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On 17th April , we had an inspection by a Ministry vet, who had come from Petrockstowe. She picked out one lame ewe, examined it closely, breathing into its mouth. Two weeks later on 1st May we were confirmed with Foot and Mouth Disease. One sheep was affected - the same sheep which had been examined by the Ministry vet. Some coincidence out of 1200 sheep and lambs. After confirmation of FMD, the army, police and most officials were considerate and meticulous about cleansing. D and L Joslin, St Giles in the Wood

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The impact of Foot and Mouth on the South West’s tourism industry began towards the end of February and accelerated through March and into April. The complete closure of many of the region’s assets meant that all sectors of tourism suffered, albeit some suffered more than others, i.e. Farm Tourism, the Moors, Devon and the Forest of Dean. This resulted in an average of 30% reduction in tourism bookings for March and more worryingly, a significant reduction in forward bookings for May, June and early July. The loss of business in the South West has been calculated at £50m - £60m in March, together with a further £75m lost business in April. The recovery commenced in May, but the losses continued to mount despite July and August having been Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 64 relatively buoyant on the coast. It will not make up for the lost earnings earlier in the year. The total loss of business over the year is difficult to calculate but is likely to be in the range of £200m - £300m in the South West. The total impact is calculated by looking at the proportion of South West’s tourism sector based on rural farm and moorland tourism ( £2.3 billion per year). Mr Bell, South West Tourism

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People on the sharp end (i.e. vets and farmers) were held back from making decisions on the ground. Although on my first suspicion the heifer did not have the typical symptoms, temperature and foot lesions, after a short time both myself and the vet were 99% sure we had Foot and Mouth Disease but the vet had to obtain permission from London to carry out skin samples which then had to be sent for analysis before confirmation was received 30 hours later. The result of this hold-up was that the cattle were not slaughtered until nearly 60 hours from the first suspicion. During this time we went from one animal showing symptoms and shedding virus at the beginning to 100 animals showing symptoms and shedding virus when they came to slaughter. When our cattle were slaughtered on 22nd March, there were so many new cases of Foot and Mouth Disease in the County that the vets and slaughter teams could not keep up. It was on this day that the Government made at least three decisions on how to treat farms surrounding the infected premises in as many hours. Having told our neighbours we had been confirmed with Foot and Mouth Disease, imagine how they were feeling when a decision was made that would affect them and then an hour later a different decision was made. The final decision was to cull contiguous animals with very little give on the rules regardless of local knowledge or individual situations. This contiguous cull would result in every farm that was infected with FMD having on average six contiguous farms to be culled at the same time. Our animals were all housed, with our nearest contiguous neighbours at least half a mile away. Our neighbour’s sheep, less than a quarter of a mile away that we could see, had woodland in the valley in between and therefore did not count as being contiguous. The slaughter, building of the pyre and eventual burning of the carcasses were carried out professionally, carefully and compassionately, as quickly as circumstances would allow, but, after the pyre was lit seven days from the first day of suspicion, everybody seemed to disappear and we were left not knowing what to do next. We had an infected premises to clean, no one to tell us what to do and nothing stopping the people coming on or off the farm apart from the signs at the farm entrance. After three weeks of having no instructions as to what to do, we then had three people in as many weeks who all said they were overseeing a clean-up on our farm but they all seemed to have a different set of directions on what had to be done or interpreted these directions differently. There was no continuity from one farm to another as to what should be done. Mr and Mrs Webber, Chulmleigh

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I milked on the morning of 20th March. I had no reason to think the day would turn out as it did, but as the last few cows came into the parlour at 7.30, I had my suspicions that we may have a problem. A young cow was later coming in than usual and I saw she had sores on the back of both hind feet. I carried on and milked her and she ate her feed with no problem. On getting the cow into the crush I found she had a large sore on her nose with loose skin hanging off the side of it. On looking in her mouth I found a small sore about half an inch across on the top of her gum. I felt that these symptoms were worrying enough to ring my vet and sound him out. We both thought it would be wise to play on the side of caution and ring MAFF to get them to come and look. My vet did this, while I went back for another look at the rest of the cows. There’s one old character here called Baby, she’s always the last to get off her cubicle for milking and enjoys a good scratch on her head to the point that she’s a pain to get moving sometimes. She was the first cow I noticed when I went back, she was drooling and flicking her tongue in and out of her mouth. I caught her by the nose there in the yard and put my hand in her mouth to ease her tongue out to see if there were any blisters. To my dismay the skin on most of the top of her tongue came away in my hand. At this point in my mind I realised we had Foot and Mouth. Mr Webber, Chulmleigh Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 65 As engineers and smiths (a small business), the majority of our customers are farmers who did not come in for new work or repairs to be done. Some wanted to stay on their farms as much as possible, others felt they could not afford to spend money and some (a few) still came in for urgent work but did not pay. We found ourselves in the situation for the first time ever of not to be able to pay our VAT. My son also could not go for his usual extra tuition as his tutor lives on a small holding and we have close contact with the farm areas. On a personal level, my father died and was farming at the time. My mother could not sell the animals and, being elderly, could not take care of them physically or financially. The only path open to her was the animal welfare programme which caused a lot of upset and disagreements amongst the family as no one was in a position to help out on the farm for any length of time. Mr Bramston, North Tawton

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At a Committee meeting of the Residents’ Association on the 26th September 2001 the comments on Foot and Mouth Disease were mainly on its effect on prices of food - meat, poultry - in certain retailers. A specific example was a roast chicken which increased from £1.99 to £2.99 in three days. Mr Shapter, Exmouth

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On 4th April a neighbouring farm was confirmed with Foot and Mouth Disease. We are separated from this holding by a large fir plantation (125 acres approx.) and also approximately a 40 acre block of land. We reluctantly agreed that the cows had to go, although at the time we like most others were ignorant of the legal position concerning the slaughter of healthy stock which is fairly well known now to most people. The worst thing of all was the way we were all treated by some of the staff at the Ministry offices with their dictatorial and abrupt manner. T and C Baldwin, Meshaw

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We were culled simply because we had animals outside within a 3 km ring of one single Foot and Mouth outbreak. We were not adjoining the outbreak. Vets had been inspecting our animals regularly and all were healthy. They were killed 13 days after the single Foot and Mouth outbreak was confirmed. This caused untold misery not only to us but to everyone around us. Before our animals were killed we were treated in a most inhumane way. We were emotionally blackmailed: “If we got Foot and Mouth, we would give it to our neighbours, and how would we feel then?” We were told that the animals would be taken away and rendered the day that they were killed but that didn’t happen. A pyre had to be built and the ashes were buried. Five months later the ashes had to be removed because they were too close to our water supply. They knew where the water supply was when they started. Nothing that would make things easier for us happened. There was a constant change of people at Exeter and a constant change of rules. This led to unbelievable pressure because we never knew where we were or what we could do. I spent many days over the past six months waiting for someone to phone me back. They very rarely did. Mrs Mudge, Huccaby

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This school was deeply affected by the outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease, both physically and emotionally. The school closed for one week at the end of February in order to let the initial feelings of panic subside, to give us the opportunity to further assess the situation and to show support for the local community. We reopened when the first pyres were lit and have remained open every since. We would like to pay tribute to the school staff for their care of the children and the professional approach they showed towards the situation. We feel that the Local Education Authority served the school poorly. When Foot and Mouth was first reported on the Sunday 25th February 2001 there was no one for the headteacher to contact in order to clarify the Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 66 situation. There was very limited information available on the Internet that related to schools, and specifically to schools in the area immediately around the outbreak. The headteacher was at the school throughout the closure period. The only contact with officers of the LEA was a conversation about disinfectant and the advice given was ultimately proved to be wrong. Ours is a small rural village and the school is in the centre of it. Many people travel to and pass the school several times a day. We did not want to feel that we were in any way responsible for the spreading of this dreadful disease. Mr Raven, Black Torrington Primary School

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I am a contract sheep shearer and I lost about £7,000 - £8,000 plus I had to buy a trailer ( £1,000) and hire a generator at £50 a week because sheep had to be shorn in the field and no-one was able to move them. Mr Herniman, St Giles in the Wood

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The emotional impact was very significant being on a farm or a neighbour of a farm where all your animals have been slaughtered on your door step, literally in some cases. Living on a farm 24 hours a day with parents who were stressed fearing for their future was very difficult for young people. There had also been a considerable impact upon those young people who were living near a funeral pyre. Isolation was the next issue. Rural young people find this to be a big issue for them in normal times but Foot and Mouth Disease made this many times worse. Farmers were so terrified of getting the disease that they barricaded themselves and their families in for several weeks. Even when the initial fear subsided, young people were allowed back to school but they were not allowed out in the evenings. Some were actually sent away to stay with relatives until the foot and mouth disease subsided. The secretary of one Young Farmers Club rang me to talk through if it would be okay if they could arrange a meeting in a local pub because she felt it was important that the club members got back together. All but one of these members who are involved in farming in any way (about 25) had lost their stock and they felt that they needed to meet as a matter of urgency. Young Farmers Clubs are often the only social life for rural young people and all 39 of our clubs and the county programmes were suspended on the 25th February. The first social event was on the 2nd August, meaning more than five months without access to their normal social outlets. Mr Goodman, Devon Federation of Young Farmers Clubs

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It is widely assumed by many that the influence of the church plays little part in the make-up of the community today. I use the example of a fairly typical village to demonstrate that this is not necessarily so. This village is a community of about 540 adults. About half of the population live within the village bounds, the rest on farms. It has a post office/stores, a school and an inn. There is a Parish Church and a Methodist Chapel. Regular attendance at Sunday worship is about forty in total, spread fairly evenly between the two churches. Special occasions will bring a congregation of up to 150. Even this is only about 30% of the adult population. There is however a strong tradition within local families that certain family members represent the family - “Mother goes for us!”. When it comes to funerals the real roots still show. There are few farms where the vicar or the minister is not welcomed with traditional hospitality which gives the Church a unique role still in fostering pastoral care and counselling those in need. The ordained clergy are spread very thinly indeed over the area. Many will have seven or more churches in their care and the pastoral work tends to overwhelm those in full-time ministry. The Methodist district has appointed a local farmer as a part-time rural worker. During the height of the Foot and Mouth epidemic he was in touch with 80 farming families, listening to their troubles and giving them support. After the first shock had worn off, the initial reaction of virtually every farmer was to isolate themselves from the rest of the world in every possible physical way. For some this was to remain their position for the next five months. There are a few who even now will not allow any visitors on the farm, and most are still wary of people Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 67 on non-essential business. This sense of extreme isolation has been the most crippling psychological effect of the crisis, enhancing as it did the natural sense of isolation experienced on any farm, and the natural concern felt by all that they did not want to be the cause of an outbreak on a neighbour’s farm. This concern was reflected throughout the whole community. No-one felt at ease even walking on the roads. Once the funeral pyres were lit and when the stench of rotting carcasses became common place, the trauma increased dramatically for everyone. It is difficult to explain the sense of desperation felt by all. It was most clearly recognised when one took a trip outside the FMD Exclusion Zone. Even in Okehampton, not affected in the early days of the crisis, life seemed utterly different - people there talked about Foot and Mouth, but not to the exclusion of everything else. Life within the Exclusion Zone became almost surreal, as though there was a physical barrier between us and the rest of the world. All non-essential work came to a halt and many farmers and their families spent hours on the phone supporting each other. Those who were not affected directly by the disease seemed as traumatised as those who were. Rev Peak, Plymouth and Exeter District, Methodist Church

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This rural parish was badly affected by the Foot and Mouth outbreak. It has an electoral roll of approximately 220. Its economy is almost entirely agricultural and based on animal husbandry. There were two cases of Foot and Mouth in the parish that resulted in the majority of animals in the parish being slaughtered (infected, contiguous, and dangerous-contact culls). The Parish Council feels the whole outbreak was handled badly. There is much anecdotal evidence in the parish about the inept handling of the outbreak. However only facts known to us will be listed here. [These include:] • A flock of sheep was slaughtered near the Parish Hall. One lamb escaped the cull and was left wandering aimlessly amongst the carcasses for several days. • The slaughtered animals were piled in a field gateway near the Parish Hall alongside the road, and left rotting for ten days in hot weather. The army eventually agreed to expedite the removal of the carcasses and they were removed one day later. Initially, the lorries that came were inappropriate to deal with the carcasses and different lorries had to be sent. • After a slaughter of infected cattle (disease detected in cattle on a Sunday, animals slaughtered on a Monday), sheep with lambs at foot were allowed to graze on the infected farm until Thursday, i.e. were not killed for four days after the disease was detected. • The atmospheric pollution from surrounding pyres was horrendous and the smells were almost unbearable at times. We would like to point out that the Parish Hall had all functions cancelled for a period of six months and all income was lost. The only major employer in the Parish (grass dryers and feed mills) has now closed with the loss of some twenty jobs. Ancillary workers in the agricultural industry, i.e. contractors, lost all income during the outbreak but achieved some income by working for MAFF during the clean-up of farms. Mr Penning, Bratton Clovelly Parish Council

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I am attaching a list of members who have contacted us [as having been affected by Foot and Mouth]. They are all micro businesses, i.e. either sole traders or employing less than five staff. Whilst it may seem hard to understand how some of these traders could be affected by this crisis, it is amazing how far reaching the effects have been. Internet Guides; Hotel; Shoe Shop; Small Holding; Cafe; Adventure Holidays; Photographic Supplies; Furniture Creams and Polishes; Public House; Bed and Breakfast; Off Road Driving and Training Centre; Rare Breed Farm; Textile Manufacturer; Supplier of Hams and Delicatessen Goods; Plant Nursery; Ostrich Farm; Gift Shop; Plant Hire Business; Antique Shop; Suppliers of Agricultural Buildings; Picture Framing; Abattoir and Butchers Shop; TV Repairs; Florist; Supplier of Milking Parlour Equipment; Sporting Agency (selling guns and other field sports equipment); Hotel Chalets; Chandlery; Ice Cream Manufacturer; Food Service Company (supplying the catering trade); Fishing Tackle Suppliers; Caravan and Camping Park; Pharmacy; Pottery. Ms Pring, Devon Regional Office, Federation of Small Businesses Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 68 It became known to police officers that many in the farming community were now suffering from various levels of stress because of the crisis. Many police officers acted as unofficial counsellors and some became the only source of contact with the outside world for some isolated in the rural parts of the County of Devon. Sadly, it became necessary to review the policy on the seizure of some of the many firearms to be found in the rural community. This policy arose from an instance in which the police had become involved where some were so distressed they had spoken of taking their own lives. A case by case approach was adopted for firearms to be seized in cases where it was justified. Fortunately, the number of firearms seized was small. Devon and Cornwall Constabulary

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As a News Provider with seven popular services in the County, my team of thirteen journalists have concluded that the performance of MAFF was lamentable - officers were evasive, unhelpful and, in our opinion, the organisation lacked co-ordination and professionalism. We often found that the NFU was the most helpful source of information. Mr Gilbert, Great Western Radio

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The Environment Agency implemented its National Incident Management procedure and opened the Devon Area Incident room on the 2nd March 2001. Our Incident Management procedure includes a National Base Controller, Regional Base Controller and Area Base Controller. At the height of the epidemic we committed some 40 staff to the Foot and Mouth outbreak in Devon at a total cost, including non-staff, of £0.5m. By the end of April with rendering at full capacity, public health concerns relating to pyres and an estimated 170,000 carcasses awaiting disposal, considerable pressure was exerted on the Environment Agency to relax the policy for more on-farm burials. However, because of the high ground water levels in Devon and the need to protect groundwater and private water supplies, very few burials could be approved. Much of Devon was waterlogged following the wettest winter for generations, which precluded burial on many farms due to the risk of contaminating ground and surface water and private drinking water supplies. During the Foot and Mouth outbreak a total of 43 pollution incidents were recorded as a direct result of Foot and Mouth activities on our National Incident Reporting System. A breakdown of each category is: Pollution Category 1 - 1 incident Pollution Category 2 - 1 incident Pollution Category 3 and 4 - 41 incidents The Category 1 incident was due to the occupant being unable to empty a slurry tank due to premises being within the infected area. This incident had a significant impact killing 350 brown trout plus salmon, common lamprey, eel, loach and bullhead fish. Mr Bateman, Devon Area, Environment Agency

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Naturally the majority of news’ crews from the international, national and regional media immediately beat a path to Highampton and Hatherleigh, the epicentre of the outbreak. With such an intense concentration of effort in this one area, it would have seemed sensible to arrange some sort of media liaison on site. Instead, all calls were directed to MAFF in Exeter. It would have saved a great deal of MAFF’s time and ours, if a person on location were given the job of relaying accurate, up-to-date information on the progress of the crisis and the work continuing beyond the barricades. As the crisis progressed, it became clear that the media’s attempts to keep the public informed were regarded as an irritant to MAFF rather than a useful way of disseminating accurate and helpful information. With so many farmers prisoners in their own homes, the use of the media to inform and assist them was an underused opportunity. MAFF’s press officers in Exeter and London frequently gave conflicting information. There was a period of Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 69 several days when their total figures for the spread of the disease in Devon did not even tally. Frequently it could take half an hour of consistent telephone calls to actually get through to the Exeter office to get simple statistical information. The NFU was a key player for the media in finding out what was going on. It could accurately represent the views of farmers - who were calling it seeking information and clarification - and also interpret policy decisions made by MAFF. The role of informed spokespersons fell by default to the Regional NFU. Anthony Gibson and Ian Johnston presented a human, caring and informed view to the public via the media. They made themselves available at all times and consequently will be remembered by many as the heroes of the crisis. Although Devon County Council did not necessarily play a daily role in our coverage, it did play an important one. The crisis gave the County Council an eagerly grasped opportunity to show itself as a community leader and a voice for the South West’s worst affected area in making representations to Government. This community leadership role had been shown before, e.g. over the closure of rural post offices, but it came to the fore during the Foot and Mouth crisis and provided us with new lines to take the story on. Communications with the County Council did not always run smoothly. Mr Foreman, Carlton TV

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The policy of disposing of carcasses by incinerating them on open-air pyres appears to have been adopted almost by default. It was in MAFF contingency plans, but only as second best to on-farm burial. However, this latter was never likely to be feasible in more than a handful of cases in saturated West and North Devon, and the Environment Agency (understandably enough) regarded it as very much a last resort. Disposal on open-air pyres therefore became the norm, with disastrous consequences. The logistical difficulties of getting thousands of railway sleepers, hundreds of tonnes of coal and vast quantities of straw to the right place at the right time through a maze of narrow lanes in one of the wettest Springs in recent memory would have daunted the most seasoned and best resourced organisers. It was quite unreasonable to have expected MAFF vets to have been capable of organising such an operation, and the results were predictable. Even when the military were deployed, the backlog which already existed, coupled with the huge additional demands placed on disposal facilities by the contiguous cull, made for intolerable delays in carcass disposal. Cattle and sheep were left to rot virtually where they had fallen for up to three weeks in the worst cases, with all that that implied for actual pollution of the air, potential pollution of land and water, and almost unbearable living conditions for the farming families concerned and their neighbours. We cannot say whether the difficulties of arranging disposal also served to delay the slaughter of infected animals, particularly in the early stages of the outbreak, but it cannot have been an incentive to rapid slaughter. The huge pyres provided images which were irresistible to editors, but which undoubtedly contributed massively to the damage done to Devon’s tourism industry. Many farmers believe that it was the pyres that spread the disease. There was certainly evidence of partially burnt carcass material being deposited several miles from the site of a pyre, having presumably been carried there on thermal air currents. And even though there is no evidence that they have caused any lasting environmental damage, the effect which they had on the quality of life and work for people living in their vicinity was devastating. South West Region, National Farmers’ Union

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The Exe Valley fishery has been adversely affected by the Foot and Mouth outbreak. The closure of footpaths has meant that access to the river was denied. The fishery was severely hit over the Easter weekend. It took only £250 when normally it would take £2,500 - £3,000. Over the first four months of the outbreak, the fishery lost £10,000. Mr Treharne, Countryside Alliance Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 70 23 Hunts currently employ a total of 61 people (this does not include volunteers). Two-thirds of these (40) are fulltime members of staff, with the remainder being either part-time, seasonal or casual. Ten out of the 22 hunts (45%) that responded have laid off staff due to the Foot and Mouth outbreak. A total number of 16 staff have been laid off. In addition one hunt laid off the kennelman for the summer but has taken him back on part-time. Four of the hunts anticipate making redundancies in the future, whilst a further four are not sure whether further redundancies will be made as it depends on the resumption of hunting. In addition, eight of twenty (40%) hunts have cut either the hours or wages of their staff, or are not hiring. Mr Treharne, Countryside Alliance

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On 5th/6th April 112 cows, calves and store cattle and 900 ewes and lambs were contiguously culled. Thirtyseven years of pedigree breeding was lost overnight. The animals were finally burnt five days short of one month after the initial outbreak. This was due to dithering at Exeter and lack of co-ordination which showed itself in many ways [including]: • Slaughter teams gave half-hour warning that they were coming. They arrived with no equipment to round up or pen the animals. • No one in authority co-ordinated where the dead animals lay. I had stock from six locations on my pyre, some of which had been left dead for three weeks. • My sister-in-law had eight phone calls from MAFF to ask the same question, “Have you been culled yet?” • No one knew how to build a pyre. Mine was too wide and had to be dug twice. • We waited two weeks to be told the animals were to be taken and watched them rot for ten days. At that time we were being told all contiguous farms were being dealt with within 48 hours. • A pyre for 112 cattle and 3,500 sheep cost in excess of £120,000. It was poorly constructed so burnt for two and a half months. Mr May, West Ashford

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My business has lost nearly all work over the Foot and Mouth Disease period. We used to employ five full-time workers. At present our small amount of works are sub-contracted with no employees at all. Scheduled replacements for equipment have had to be shelved. We had six months’ work in hand, but at present we have less than two weeks. We are now considering closing the business completely. I personally have not drawn from my business since April 2001 despite working very hard on its recovery. I am not sure where to turn at present. Mr Jowett, Morwellham

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As the disease took hold in the County many Sites of Special Scientific Interest owners were affected, both directly through culls and indirectly through the necessary restrictions placed on movement of cattle. In Devon the total SSSI area (in hectares) in or partly within 3 kilometre FMD buffer zones was 2,303. The number of biological SSSIs within 3 kilometre FMD buffer zones was 28. The number of geological SSSIs within the 3 kilometre FMD buffer zones was 12. There was no direct damage to any of the SSSIs in Devon. Only at Braunton were stock culled on an SSSI. Mr Collins, Devon Team, English Nature

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The whole parish was affected by the need for the slaughter of most animals. The Parish Council feel the consultation with them was minimal. Although notices from the County Council and the District Council were supplied to close footpaths, there was no use of the Parish Council which could have been a valuable source of information to inform local people, through its own networks. Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 71 In the Parish there were two large pyres. There were notices put through some doors in the Parish, informing of the imminence of the pyres being lit. There was much rumour and misinformation regarding the danger of the fires, causing concern to a number of people. There was no consultation with the Parish Council whatsoever regarding the pyres. Bridestowe Parish Council

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The Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak led to the cancellation and postponement of many arts activities throughout Devon. Box office receipts and other income fell, sometimes sharply. In several cases this was caused by the reduced numbers of visitors to the area; in others by a reluctance of local people to travel around and risk infection. It is of course almost impossible to quantify the emotional and social impact of the outbreak. In the arts, there are many examples where events and projects were affected in terms of attendance. In addition the success of those events which did take place was impacted on by the local, regional and national mood during the outbreak period. With village hall events being cancelled one after another, we found one village resolutely determined to continue their long planned village hall music event - determined to show and celebrate community spirit in a time of difficulty. Mr Humphreys, South West Arts, and Ms Hayes, Devon Arts Forum

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One week before Easter this year a MAFF vet turned up on my dairy farm and announced that he had come to carry out a contiguous cull of our herd. All local cases were miles away to my knowledge and so I questioned him. His paperwork showed my farm, my herd address, my holding number and my phone number. At this point I asked him to ring his boss. The answer came back that the “neighbouring farm” was in fact 15 miles away. I was not a contiguous cull - the paperwork was all wrong. One week later we went down with Foot and Mouth. The only stranger to our farm had been this vet. We had taken extremely careful disinfectant measures. I firmly believe that the MAFF vet brought the infection to our farm and consequently devastated this holding and those of all my neighbours. Once Foot and Mouth was confirmed, the vet sent to us by MAFF was excellent. He handled the awful task of slaughtering the herd with courtesy to myself and staff - and with great consideration of our feelings. My stockman and I knew every animal. This farm has been in my direct family since the 1930s, and before that was owned by a more distant relative. It can be traced back to the Domesday Book and is the same acreage as it was in 1066AD - with the exception of 50 acres which was given to an uncle in the 1960s. I was born here, and live here with my father, stepmother, wife and children. My son has just attained a Degree in Agriculture and Business from University and is prepared to carry on. My experience? The trauma and devastation are hard to describe. Silence morning and night - no milking machine. No calves reminding us that they need feeding. Neighbours phoning but not daring to come near. Our stock were all killed on Good Friday. The initial response handled by the vet was excellent but it soon became clear that communications were not taking place between different parts of the operation. My wife took two calls on the killing day and the following day from MAFF, stating that they were coming to kill the stock. We had only three cats and two dogs left and it was most upsetting. The people on the other end of the phone were most embarrassed when the situation was explained. We have cleaned and disinfected and found the agent dealing with this to be helpful, although many neighbours have different tales to tell. We are restocking and surviving, but live in fear that it will return. It has taken a toll on us all. Fortunately my son was away at the time and so has returned with the enthusiasm to carry on. He did not see the slaughter or lead the cows to death. Mr Baker, Umberleigh Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 72 Our sheep were destroyed, and our only barn was demolished with no compensation. We both suffered from respiratory problems due to the fires. The C and D process was slow and incompetent. We were unable to work in our studios (as artists) for three months as the electrical supply was cut off by the C and D. We could not leave the farm to work elsewhere. I suffered from depression. The experience of FMD and the subsequent C and D has left us with lasting distrust and lack of respect for Government. We are fearful of the future. Mrs Vergette, Highampton

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A sheep dealer from Devon had developed and established a large trade in cull sheep and store lambs during the late winter months. The trade involved purchasing sheep from the large markets in Northumberland and Cumbria, and then sorting the sheep into specific marketable groups and reselling them into different markets where their values were marginally more. Some were delivered directly onto farms, some resold in livestock markets, and some exported for slaughter to countries such as France and Spain. This trade was well established, had been running for some time and served a useful purpose in that it distributed relatively low value animals in large numbers to places where they were wanted. However, it proved to be a most efficient way of disseminating a highly infectious disease, with the dozen or so infected sheep that were originally taken into Hexham Market being allowed to contact over 60,000 others within the incubation period of the disease, in many parts of the country. Many of these sheep were returned to the dealer’s own home farms in Devon before redistribution, and during their short stay were clipped and sorted, often with the help of other farmers and stockmen in the area, who then returned to their own farms carrying the virus. Devon is a high stock dense area, containing 165,000 pigs, 1.8 million sheep and 617,000 cattle (DEFRA June census). Those areas where infection was first seeded are particularly stock dense, and had, perhaps by coincidence, been well used to dealing with TB before FMD came along. The experience gained by TB control may have eased the implementation of the FMD control measures, as the local offices of the State Veterinary Service were reasonably well resourced, with good working relationships with local practices and farms. The spread of infection from the original index cases in the west of the County towards south and east Devon led to a peak of cases in March. This reached a maximum of 34 infected premises in the last week of March, leading to the slaughter of 235 holdings in that one week. Mr Sibley, Witheridge

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We are a farm tourist attraction with over 400 animals to feed and care for. We also have a caravan and camping site and a self catering flat. Due to the Foot and Mouth crisis our business has suffered substantial losses. The business was closed to the general public for nine weeks. Normally two thirds of our animals would have been moved for fresh grazing, but due to the fact that we could not obtain a licence and then we became in an infected area, we could not move animals. Our feed bills rose from £450 per month to £1,200 per month with no money coming in to pay for this extra cost. We did have three camping rallies booked which should have brought us in an extra £3,500 but all these were cancelled by the caravan and camping club. Mrs Harding, Farway

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The army invited me to demonstrate a design of fire that I claimed would greatly speed up the process of burning carcasses and cut down on the output of atmospheric pollutants. An experimental fire was prepared near Holsworthy in Devon using timber available on the site of a large pyre. The experimental fire measured 8ft by 8ft in area and consisted of a crib of timber baulks (sleepers) 8ft long having a cross section of 9 inches by 5 inches. Two sleepers (bearers), 8ft apart, laid on their broad side formed the base of the crib. A sleeper was laid on its narrow side on both these bearers and the space between them filled with kindling. Over the kindling were placed 12 sleepers laid on their narrow side and spaced equidistantly (about 4 inches) save that the centre 2 sleepers were placed side by side to form a baulk (10 inches by 9 inches). Eleven more sleepers were laid across the others and placed equidistantly. Four more sleepers were laid over these, two at the edge and two 2ft from the edge. Pallets were cut to fit between the four sleepers on the top of the crib. Eight ewes (said to be Suffolk/Mule x) were laid in two rows on their side over these last-mentioned sleepers Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 73 with the heads of all but one in the centre and three lambs laid over the ewes’ heads. Care was taken that the ewe carcasses did not touch each other so that flames could pass around each carcass. A double layer of pallets was laid over the carcasses and two sheets of 8ft by 4ft particle board laid over the whole to deflect heat and flames onto the top of the pyre intensifying the burning. It was intended that adjustments to the burning rate could be achieved by addition of fuel beneath the crib and between the sleepers. The fire reduced the carcasses to ash in three hours with negligible production of smoke and no smell. Mr Boyt, Davidstow, Cornwall

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When Foot and Mouth disease broke out in February 2001 we found ourselves at the centre of the Devon outbreak. Within a very short time the disease was confirmed at farms all around us and there was quickly a huge build-up of culled animals in the fields and barns all around us. It was evident that there were not enough labour and facilities available to burn the vast numbers of carcasses, nor indeed to render or bury them. Reacting to the needs to dispose of large numbers of bodies MAFF took the very reasonable step of looking for a mass burial site. I understand that they surveyed over 30 possible sites in Devon before deciding that Ash Moor was the most suitable. In my opinion MAFF made the right decision at the right time. They completed the purchase of the land very quickly and the original time-span was to be about 10-15 days before filling the pits could commence. At this time there was a desperate need for these pits. From our farm we could see seven or eight pyres burning all round us, the smell was dreadful and was in addition to the smell from the rotting bodies which were steadily increasing in number. One of my neighbours had over 4,000 sheep and 200 cattle destroyed. They laid where they were killed for over a week. The original MAFF plan was for a private road to be used for access, after upgrading, to the burial pits site. Because of protests, MAFF were forced to build a completely new access road through the clay works entering through the village of Meeth. Building this new road cost several million pounds and caused a delay about 6-8 weeks. By this time the need for the burial pits had passed and we had suffered more pyres and smell, with the resultant trauma. Much of this could have been avoided if the pits had been constructed and put into operation within the original timescale. Myself and a number of local farmers feel strongly that MAFF did an excellent job in purchasing Ash Moor and planning the construction of the burial pits. I personally commend MAFF for their efforts in relation to the Ash Moor pits and in fact with certain reservations their general handling of the FMD outbreak in Devon. Of course, mistakes were made, but in view of the enormity of the task, I think given their limited resources MAFF did its best. Mr Banks, Petrockstowe

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We have guest accommodation (6 letting rooms) and 2 self-catering cottages. Between March - May 2001 inclusive business was down some 60% overall. In June and the first 2 weeks in July business picked up with last minute bookings and much repeat business. The end of July and beginning of August was very bad - over 90% down some weeks on 6-year average. Some 85% of our business has been repeat business (up from annual average of 65%). Without this we would have been really struggling. We have minimised impact on us in 3 ways: a) deferred virtually all refurbishment plans b) drastically cut casual staff hours c) reduced advertising spend for 2002 by approx. 80% The impact of this on our suppliers and staff is dramatic: a) builders, electricians, furniture and equipment suppliers have not had the orders they would expect b) some staff hours have been cut by 80% on previous years c) membership of West Country Tourism has been lapsed and advertisement in North Devon Guide discontinued Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 74 We judge that the media have been major contributors to the crisis in tourism by showing carcasses and pyres nightly. The worst thing is that every time F&M is mentioned - even now - they put out library footage of these scenes. The worst is yet to come. Many businesses will just not have sufficient in their savings to see the winter through. North Devon District Council were excellent in organising a deferment of the business rates - minimum bureaucracy and speedy solution. The financial support available to businesses (“Meacher money” up to £15k) was slow, confusing and linked into excessive accountancy/consultancy advice. The rules kept changing and the anticipated delays in distributing the funds put us off. All we needed was some fast track assistance for 2002 advertising which needed to be in place by July at a figure based on our previous years. Mr Jones, Eastleigh

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We run an English Language School for foreign adults and children. We spent a great amount of time on the telephone and email informing and reassuring clients regarding the crisis. Over-information and misinformation from the press and authorities worldwide created a real sense of panic amongst our foreign clients, individuals, travel and educational agents, schools and other educational establishments as well as government authorities. As a result we had a great number of cancellations, particularly from Junior groups, often as a request from their governmental authorities. Our overall bookings went down by 20 % this year, going down by nearly 800 student weeks. Our Junior students bookings went down by 30% this year. Our Junior students bookings went down by 53% this summer (over 10 weeks). Our bookings for Junior students in groups went down by 70%. These figures indicate clearly that the group organisers who normally promote in February/March/April just did not bother this year or were very unsuccessful as a direct result of the media coverage regarding Foot & Mouth. English in Devon, our local association of ARELS (Association of Recognised English Language Services, accredited by the British Council), did write to Business Link regarding recognition of the problem and possible support but did not even get an acknowledgment. Ms Borgen, Exeter

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This is a large Devon primary school, on the edge of the moors. The effect was profound. All the children were caught up in the atmosphere of despair. Visits and access to local study areas were stopped. Meetings / courses etc were cancelled. One particular colleague had to move off his farm and live apart from his wife in order to attend school. The visual impact in North Devon was very disturbing. Ms Quiggin, Woodlands Park Primary School, Ivybridge

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The company that I own and manage exports bull semen from AI Companies, Breed Societies and individual breeders across the UK. It is based at my home. We work to strict Health Protocols for each bull that vary from country to country. Having built up the company again after the BSE crisis we were on course to achieve a turnover of £350,000+ in 2001. We lost all this trade on Day One of FMD as every country that we export to withdrew their Health Protocols and have banned imports until at least 3 months after the last case is reported in the country. 95% of our business has been lost. Mr Wills, Ilsington

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The children, parents, staff and governors of this primary school have all been touched by the outbreak whether they are involved with the business of farming or not. Only one local farm has not had its stock slaughtered and so the whole area was affected by the stench that ensued from the rotting carcasses and then smoke from the funeral pyres. The school and all businesses have been affected by the destruction of the farming industry Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 75 in the area and the personal trauma is unquantifiable. The Devon experience of FMD is ongoing in our area. The effect on the countryside, economy and families has been traumatic and remains so as the threat of FMD returning still looms over farming families in the area. Many of our families, worrying about their livelihood, kept children home initially, until the realisation of the timescale involved meant serious interruption to their children’s education. Sadly, this meant we often had to send children home knowing that their stock was about to be slaughtered. Clinton School, Merton

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We provide English language courses for foreigners and, from March to June, our student numbers were down between 25% and 30% on previous year’s figures. We have also suffered a decrease in bookings from September to the end of the year - we usually have 30 students in the school all year round (rising to 90 in the summer) but we are currently working with only 15 students until Xmas. The cash flow projections are naturally very worrying. We tried to get help from both Plymouth and Exeter Chambers of Commerce but I left messages that were not returned and couldn’t get any further, even with the Business Link offices. We need help - we are a small business and we provide employment for local teachers, host families and therapists, as well as attracting foreign students to the town all year round, with the knock-on effect for local high street businesses. Ms Barker, Totnes

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Many farms and small businesses in our parish were affected by restrictions of movement of animals, closure of local markets and slow down of tourists to the area. The councillors of this Parish Council were very keen to help to protect the boundary points into our parish by disinfecting, and numerous letters and e-mails were sent to the County Council and to MAFF trying to gain permission to carry this out. Devon County Council stated that if MAFF agreed to this as a plan of action they would carry it out. When we telephoned the MAFF helpline, they thought it was a good idea, but according to Devon County Council it was never proposed to them as a plan of action. We did not feel that we could proceed as it required placing materials on the public highway and if an accident should have occurred we, as a parish council, would not be insured. Mr Badcock, Kings Nympton Parish Council

• • • • •

This Society is 110 years old, is based in Devon, has two full time and one part time member of staff, and records the pedigrees of the South Devon breed of beef cattle. It promotes the breed and its attributes to other farmers across the whole country (there are 600 herds from Penzance to Aberdeen) and abroad. It promotes the meat to the retail sector and recently launched its own marketing scheme to brand the beef in butchers shops up and down the South West. It runs sales for members to sell their top quality livestock. It offers a multitude of membership services including newsletters, journals and technical support. The Breed Society has seen most income sources severely reduced during the FMD crisis, particularly coming on top of the 5 years of worries caused by BSE. Members are reticent to register pedigrees (the Society’s main source of income) when they see little or no prospect of selling breeding cattle. There are no Society Sales for the Society to generate commission and there are no private sales either so transfer fees, from the transfer of pedigrees when sold, are non-existent. There have been no social get-togethers at which fundraising would normally take place and merchandise sales too. The South Devon breed has had a deep and long lasting effect on the county. It is the breed from which clotted cream came. Its homeland is the South Hams and its beautiful green fields full of red grazing cattle are the direct result of South Devon breeders and their cattle. In other countries Breed Societies are supported by the government to allow the nation’s heritage to thrive, and to promote export sales. This is not the case here and if the crisis were to continue the Society’s ability to support its membership and continue its current functions would be severely curtailed to the detriment of its 600 farmer members and the heritage of the County and the country. L Lewin, South Devon Herd Book Society Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 76 We are beef, sheep and dairy farmers who were contiguous on three different sides. We battled with MAFF and won to keep our cattle and sheep through legal action. We were the first farmers to instruct the solicitors, Stephens and Scown. Mr Westaway, Chulmleigh

• • • • •

The Devon Guild of Craftsmen is an arts organisation representing some 230 craftspeople from across the South West. The Foot and Mouth epidemic has meant a drop in profits of £30,000 at our Riverside Mill Crafts Centre and an accompanying 10% drop in visitor numbers (up to 30% at the start of the crisis). This loss will seriously affect not only the Centre itself but also our ability to support all of the microbusinesses, ie craftspeople, across Devon who were also directly affected. Some craftspeople in Devon experienced a 70% drop in takings and some have gone out of business. Mr Murdin, Devon Guild of Craftsmen, Bovey Tracey

• • • • •

Report from a farm at Burrington With my family I have been here since 1946, coming with my parents from my grandparents’ farm also in the parish. We brought sheep with us as a nucleus for our flock. Although not a pedigree flock, every year the best ewe lambs were selected to replace culled ewes, as had been the practice from grandfather’s early days in farming - so bloodlines went back to them. We saw no reason for this pattern to change until 10th April 2001 when we became another case of Foot and Mouth Disease in Devon. Having been living on a knife-edge for seven weeks - as had every other farmer in Devon and other areas - the shock was still considerable. That day seemed endless yet so much happened swiftly entirely beyond our control. On 5th April we had heard of a confirmed outbreak in the village, with sorrow and compassion for them and for the local people having to endure the sight and smell of rotting carcasses for days on end. Beyond our control and a very sad part for us was the inevitable involvement of adjoining neighbours - all are our friends, some for a life-time. By the end of that day we were all devastated, especially our daughter and son-in-law, having helped to slaughter 66 bullocks, 415 ewes, 9 rams, plus more than 600 lambs - lambs I had seen skipping around their mothers when I looked out of the window in the morning, knowing that would be the last time. The Ministry vets and slaughter team did their jobs as well as they were able, with care and consideration. April 11th dawned a beautiful morning almost insensitively bright for the gruesome sight of piles of dead sheep lying in the fields and yard full of dead bullocks already blown up to bursting point, and the slaughter team coming again to kill all our other daughter’s sheep in the afternoon. “Fly”, our sheepdog, was very subdued afterwards; she must have thought it strange to keep driving flocks into pens but not away again. Mornings came and days went by without the need to think of animals being fed, or checked for lameness or looking poorly. We had a silence around us, a dog with no work, hay silage and straw with nothing to feed or bed. There was an overpowering smell everywhere which we had to live with for eighteen days because, although we hoped the animals would be buried, we were only given the choice of a funeral pyre or rendering. Believing that the pyres were a source of spreading the disease, we did not wish to inflict that on further neighbours - and on our conscience. Since the start of lambing in early January I had been waiting for the day when the kitchen windowsill would be free from bottles, teats, jugs and a box of milk powder to feed orphan lambs. When that day came, how I wished them back again. We were very comforted by so many phone calls, letters, cards, offers to shop and collect things, and cheering gifts. The box at the end of the lane has become our lifeline while we continued as virtual prisoners here. Now five months later we are nearing the end of a meticulous cleaning and disinfecting programme of equipment, machinery and large number of older and ancient buildings. Our only income since last November, when we sold the remainder of our year 2000 lambing crop, has been from MAFF/DEFRA for this cleaning. We are still on Form A, so unable to restock and not sure if it is safe to do so at present with Foot and Mouth Disease still active in certain areas. We could not face the trauma of having the disease a second time. Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 77 Life in the community has suffered badly, with very little fund raising and social events happening even now. So opportunities to meet together are few. We still avoid visiting anyone with cloven hoofed animals. We meet them in town or at some other venue. We still feel very vulnerable to any comments regarding farmers’ actions and movements and understand the problems and distress of those who have retained their flocks and herds and the heavy financial burdens they are still facing. Life will never be the same for so many. The situation was compounded by the casual manner in which FMD was treated in the first weeks, the callous way in which we were left with dead animals around us for 18 days after slaughter and the many instances of slapdash record keeping in Ministry offices. Another report from Burrington From the start of the outbreak there was a total collapse of the social structure within the rural area leading to desperate isolation for many people. There was a cessation of regular village activities: youth club, skittles, council meetings, church services, school fixtures were all cancelled, and children were kept off school. The closure of livestock markets - the regular meeting places for farmers and their suppliers - increased the feelings of isolation and depression felt throughout the community. There is little doubt that these factors contributed to a suicide in this parish. Seven months on and most activities have resumed, but spontaneous visits to farms no longer happen. The many local businesses closely connected to the rural community faced great uncertainty in the early stages of the outbreak. The fear of unwittingly spreading the disease caused paralysis in the rural economy affecting all businesses from village shops, pubs and hotels through to builders, agricultural suppliers and so on. Time has lessened this paralysis but many rural businesses have had a lean time during this crisis. The impact on the livestock farmers was immense. Those whose animals were culled experienced the terrible trauma of slaughter and disposal. However those whose animals survived, suffered draconian movement restrictions, resulting in unprecedented animal welfare and financial problems. The routine husbandry of many animals was so disrupted that both animals and farmers suffered greatly. The chaotic disposal system allowed large numbers of both infected and contiguously culled animals to lie rotting beside public roads and in the centre of our village for up to 17 days. The sight and smell were utterly abhorrent and such a ‘medieval’ situation must never be allowed to happen again. Burrington Parish Council

• • • • •

We breed pedigree Suffolk sheep. Our flock has become extremely successful. Last year we won the title of the champion flock in the Western Area Branch (West of England and Wales) and the West Country through the Suffolk Sheep Societies Flock Competitions. Our sales season is relatively short beginning mid-July through to early August for the top ram lambs to fellow breeders. 80% of these ram lambs are sold outside of the County. We were still on a ‘Form D’ and within the last infected area until the end of July, hence these sales were lost. Our top stud ram is in Scotland and the only way of using him was through AI, which was not allowed on our farm until the end of August, meaning these lambs will be born three weeks later than in normal years and also three weeks later than those of our closest competitors at next years sales (if there are any!). We have also lost out on the sale of thirty to forty shearling ewes, which would normally be sold to other breeders throughout Britain. It is impossible to work out exact losses for the year and indeed for next year, but an estimate would be that 75% of our business has been lost due to the Foot and Mouth outbreak. I never want to see dead livestock lying across Devon’s fields for three weeks waiting for removal. I am only extremely lucky that none of them were mine, as neighbours and friends have lost theirs. Mr Irwin, Kings Nympton Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 78 We provide a wide-ranging performing arts and educational development programme involving professional companies, amateur groups and a range of local organisations, particularly educational establishments. The overall impact of FMD has seriously impaired certain aspects of our work and created financial difficulties for the organisation as a whole. Movement was inhibited, and so many community activities had to be curtailed. This resulted in the cancellation of many events, including education, participation and amateur projects. Our estimate is that £20,000 to £30,000 income was directly lost from reduction in audiences, show cancellations, school movement restrictions and increased marketing and production costs incurred. This has had a direct impact on our growth plans following a period of artistic and financial stabilisation. Mr Giddings, North Devon Theatres, Barnstaple

• • • • •

The Town Council are owners of much commercial property in Tavistock. The closure of our cattle market has cost us £20,000 in lost rental this financial year, and several retail units have been empty due to the downturn in commercial activity. In all, we are 20% or more short on our expected rents this year due to the FMD restriction. This will affect our programme of works in the town and also have a knock-on effect on the setting of the precept next year. As a local authority we get no rate relief on these matters. The closure of Whitchurch Down forced all the dog owners for miles around to bring their dogs to our town’s open space to be walked. We had to expend resources and money on cleaning up and implementing the dog byelaws, again with no recompense. The unquantified decrease in visitors to the town has affected all the traders. Tavistock Town Council

• • • • •

This primary school is situated in the middle of an affected area and all the farms in the parish (except one) had their animals slaughtered, resulting in the village being engulfed in smoke etc. from the burning pyres (fortunately for the school this happened at half term and so the school was not forced to close). All pupils, parents, staff and governors were affected by the outbreak which had, and is still having, repercussions throughout the whole district. Governors were initially given very little guidance and, even after receiving guidelines from Devon County Council, there were still many areas where the local community had to support itself. The proposal to build a mass burial site at Petrockstowe, where children from this school live, had a dramatic effect on the whole community, but especially on some parents of young children. Meetings were held throughout the district and a meeting was held with public health personnel at this school, to inform and educate parents re any potential risks, but, because of the untried nature of the site, many people are still unable to accept that this would not cause harm to the local environment and the health of the community. It is hoped that this site may never be used. Mrs Crocker, Clinton School, Merton

• • • • •

We are a fallow deer park, located in the disease hot spot of Hatherleigh. We have our own licensed game processing facility, and have set up a producer group where we purchase and market the production from 9 fallow deer parks throughout the Westcountry. We purchase their production, and process it in our facility and then market and sell the processed cuts nationally. We therefore act as the primary outlet for these producers. We pay the producers a premium for quality stock, and thus have their quality product to add to our own production to provide continuity supplying our retail outlets. Our property is located 1 mile from the initial outbreak in Devon. Our D notice was issued on 22nd March, whereupon, we were prevented using our own production in the food chain. MAFF approved that we could continue trading with our existing or new producers outside D notice areas. Carcasses were picked up from the various parks, brought into our facilities, processed and then taken from our facilities up to London for sale. We were visited every 2 to 3 days by MAFF vets, who openly admitted that they would have to rely on our knowledge of the natural characteristics of fallow deer to identify symptoms out of the ordinary. Our neighbours were visited every 10 days or so. When enquiring why this difference we were informed that we Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 79 were a contiguous property. On further investigation, they conceded that this was not the case, the infected property in question being some distance away, with other holdings between ours and theirs. On no occasion did the same MAFF vets visit both us and our immediate neighbour, each time sending out different teams from Exeter. On one occasion, whilst leaving the house to meet the vets at the end of our drive, a call was received from other vets leaving Exeter to visit us to carry out the same inspection. Toward the end of the outbreak in Devon, our neighbour’s stock was slaughtered on suspicion, due to a lesion being found in one lamb. The vet involved was convinced it was Foot and Mouth. His entire stock of sheep, and dairy cows was slaughtered. My deer herd was grazing in our paddock adjacent to the field. We, being contiguous, were informed that if the tests on the lesion proved positive, our deer would be culled. Two days later one of our 2 remaining sheep was found to have a lesion. The MAFF vet stated that it was definitely not Orf, and so the sheep, and our pet goat were slaughtered, and an A notice served on our farm. Our deer were left pending results of the blood samples from the slaughtered animals. Both our neighbour’s and our samples proved negative. Mr Kent, Hatherleigh

• • • • •

The lack of communication with the people living in surrounding areas was amazing. The army managed to block both routes from the link road to Roachill at the same time completely ignoring the fact that they were operating at the time of the school buses. Hence a school child was dropped on the road and asked to walk home. She had to walk through the bodies of dead sheep which were being picked up by MAFF men in white suits. The men in the carcass collecting lorry shouted at her to stop, they put her in the lorry cab and radioed for an army pickup to collect her and bring her home another way, but they had blocked the other way with another lorry.

This has happened before elsewhere when a parent due to collect her child off the school bus was allowed to get between two carcass holding lorries. The school bus could not wait for her to arrive and drove off taking the child on a route which it did not know, hence the child had a screaming tantrum on the bus because it was afraid. The poor mother did not know how to get to the child because she was in the car, so she wasn’t by her phone and other parents were trying to contact her.

Miss Coffin, South Molton

• • • • •

Of our 5 Devon Discovery Outdoor and Residential Centres, 3 were majorly affected by FMD. A total of 86 week and weekend residential courses, mainly for Devon school and youth groups, had to be cancelled. These were offset by rearranging 7 courses to other times or locations. Financially, a conservative estimate of loss of income to Devon Discovery for the period to 26th February to 4th October 2001 is £90,159. We also have a concern that a number of groups who found alternative venues not affected by FMD, or simply cancelled their residential course, will not return to our Centres.

Mr Berry, Devon County Council

Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 80

;

LIST OF PEOPLE AND ORGANISATIONS WHO SUBMITTED EVIDENCE TO THE DEVON FOOT

AND MOUTH INQUIRY IN 2001 (Places named are all in Devon unless otherwise stated)

 

Mr G Norris Bradstone

Rev P Fitzpatrick Northmoor Team

Ministry, Okehampton

Dr N Atkinson Dartmoor National

Park Authority,

Bovey Tracey

Mr T Jones Devon and Cornwall

Business Council,

Plymouth

Mrs L Rolls Princetown

Mr R Holdsworth Totnes

Mr M Brice Stoodleigh

Mr D Geeves St Austell, Cornwall

Mrs W Parkhouse Ivybridge

Mr G Streeter Member of

Parliament for SW

Devon

Mr B Inwood Christow

Ms L Smith Devon Association of

Parish Councils, Exeter

Mr E Haes Hayle, Cornwall

Mr P Trainor and Ms C Norman Barnstaple

Mr W Willmetts Knowstone

Cllr Mrs L Gear Ilfracombe

Mr R Gard Crediton

Devon County Council Ms A Dentith, Waste

Management Team,

Environment

Directorate, Exeter

Mr M Parsons Newton Abbot

Mrs E Brooks Monkleigh

Mrs P Trumper Farringdon

Mrs D Parkinson Feniton

C and A Tucker Crediton

Ms F Walker North Tawton

Development Trust

Sir S Waley-Cohen Simonsbath, Somerset

Mr R Fieldhouse Thorverton

Mr M Vaughan

Staverton Parish Council

Mrs J Chave West Hill

Mrs D Tappin Pyworthy

Mr F Lowry Beaworthy

Devon County Council Mr M Thomasson,

County Emergency

Planning Officer,

Exeter

Mr G Powell Exmouth

Devon County Council Mr B Smith, Adviser

for Outdoor

Education, Exeter

Mr H Richardson Witheridge

Mr A Fletcher Paignton

Miss G Hall Okehampton

Mrs C Hughes Branscombe Parish

Council

Mrs P Stone Chagford Parish

Council

Miss R Roberts Holne

Mr R Wright Great Torrington

Mr S Hill Exmouth

Mrs R Gethin Buckland-in-the-Moor

Mr M Hancox Stroud, Glos.

Mr B Linfoot Devon Area,

Ramblers’ Association,

Cullompton

Mr S Gibbins Clyst Hydon

A & L Gifford Milton Damerel

Ms K Lovell Barnstaple Town

Council

Mr C Moor Local Government

Association, London

Mr M Pile Kentisbury

Mrs J Ackner Morebath

Mrs T Hancocks Devon Federation of

Womens’ Institutes,

Exeter

Ms J Beer North Devon NHS

Primary Care Trust,

Barnstaple

Mr C Jewitt Stoke Hill Beagles,

Exeter

Mr M Dymond Ilfracombe

Mr R Baker Yarnscombe

Mr A Griffin Exeter

LIST OF PEOPLE AND ORGANISATIONS WHO SUBMITTED EVIDENCE TO THE DEVON FOOT

AND MOUTH INQUIRY IN 2001 (Places named are all in Devon unless otherwise stated)

Mrs A Crocker Meeth

Miss B Chinneck Scoble Okehampton

Mrs R Kittow Payhembury

Ms J Russell Chittlehampton Parish

Council

Mr J Fowler Ilfracombe

Mr G Symons Shaldon

Mr M Jecks South Zeal

Mrs J Rudman High Bickington

Church of England

Primary School

Mr A & Mrs J Cottey Chittlehampton

Miss J Lapthorne Plympton

Mr M Tighe Great Torrington

Town Council

Mr M Moore Ottery St Mary

Mr A & Mrs M Johns Sheepwash

Mr K Jones Bickington

Mr D Meldrum Chagford

Rev D Ursell Dolton

Mrs J Hardy Buckerell

Mr D Tucker Romansleigh

Rev Dr A Jones The Oakmoor

Ministry, Bishops

Nympton

M Quicke Newton St Cyres

Ms M Calvert Lydford

Mr K Bavin East Anstey

Mr M Leighton Kilmington

Mr S Richardson Western Counties

Veterinary

Association, Modbury

Cllr J Glanvill Woodbury

Mr J Varley Clinton Devon Estates,

East Budleigh

Mr R Head Devon Farms

Accommodation,

Oakford

Mr A Jackson Callington, Cornwall

Cllr D Shadrick Holsworthy

Mr R Drake Drewsteignton

J & B Skinner Meeth

Mr R Thomson Tiverton

Mrs M Jones Widecombe-in-the

Moor

Mr M Cook National Trust (Devon

Region), Broadclyst

Ms J Rudge Connexions Cornwall

and Devon Ltd,

Launceston, Cornwall

Uffculme Parish Council

Ms S Burnham Exeter

Dr P Pay Chulmleigh

Mr P Phillips Hartland

Mr D Incoll West Devon Borough

Council, Tavistock

Mr J Brooks Dunsford

Ms R Thomas South West Forest,

Beaworthy

Mr B Bruins SW Green Party,

Crediton

Heanton Punchardon Parish Council

Mr & Mrs P Bown Wembworthy

Mr & Mrs R Wedlake Chulmleigh

Mr A Holland High Bickington

Mrs T Nicholas Marwood

Mr J Graham Woodleigh

Mr W Luxton Petrockstowe

Ms B Fryer High Bickington

Mrs L McBride Knowstone

Mr & Mrs H Barrow Frithelstock

Miss G Edsell Newton Tracey

M & A Marshall Holsworthy

Mrs J Wilson Sampford Courtenay

Mr J Sellgren County Councils

Network, London

Mr H Davis Teignbridge District

Council, Newton

Abbot

Mrs J Willoughby South Brent Parish

Council

Mrs P Townsend East Worlington

Parish Council

Mr D Woodman Challacombe

Mr C Latham Marwood

Ms G Douglas-Mann Petrockstowe

Mr M Tomlinson Petrockstowe

Ms C Hutchings South Devon Tourism

Association, North

Bovey

Mr J Skinner Meeth

Ms B Boundy Tiverton

Mrs J Gill Sourton

Mr F Payne Totnes

Mr J Hawkins Halwill Parish Council

Mrs E Phillips Longdown

Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 82

Mrs P Kellaway Bratton Fleming

Mr G Kellaway Bratton Fleming

Mr K Lancaster Kennerleigh Parish

Meeting

Meeth Parish Council

Cllr D Key Upottery

Mr P Evison Bondleigh

Mrs M Watson Beaworthy

Mr P Reeve Clyst St Mary

Mr S Sutcliffe Broadhempston

Mr J Stanbury Knowstone

Mr A Beer Stoke Rivers

Ms R Love South West Coast

Path Team, Exeter

Devon County Council Mr A Jordan, Home/

School Transport

Service, Exeter

Mr P Hygate Botus Fleming,

Cornwall

Mrs M Smith Yarcombe Parish

Council

Cllr J Lambert Kingsteignton

Mr R Easterbrook Bridestowe

Mr M Elsworthy Monkleigh

Mr C Dapling Devon County Council

Farm Tenants’

Association,

Kentisbury

Rev. J Peak The Methodist

Church, Plymouth &

Exeter District

Exmoor National Park Authority Dulverton

Mr D Batchelor League Against Cruel

Sports, London

Mr M Goodman Devon Federation of

Young Farmers Clubs,

Exeter

Mrs R Gifford Hartland

Ms S Bizley Citizens’ Advice

Bureau, Okehampton

Miss B Herrod-Taylor North Tawton

Mr R Herniman St Giles in the Wood

Mr C Dare Upottery

R Glanville Exbourne

Dr J Stoneman Exbourne with

Jacobstowe Parish

Council

H Nancekivell Exbourne

Mr R & Mrs J Phipps Exbourne

M Brend Exbourne

Mr M Raven Black Torrington

Church of England

Primary School

Mrs R Mudge Huccaby

T & C Baldwin Meshaw

Mr P Scott Friends of the Earth

(East North Devon

Group), Barnstaple

Miss B Ware Bow Parish Council

Mr J Shapter Exmouth Residents’

Association

Mr G Thomas Highampton

Ms P Cather Abbotskerswell

Mr P Whitehouse East Ogwell

Mr T Bramston North Tawton

Mrs P Webber Chawleigh

Mrs B, Mr R and Mr R Howle Kingsteignton

A Holmes Ottery St Mary

Mr A Wright Sandford

Mr R Deane Buckland Filleigh

Mr C Paull Sherwell Parish

Council

Mr R Domled Atherington Parish

Council

Mrs N Hawkins Hatherleigh

Mrs S Bromell Bideford

D Evans Lydford Parish Council

Mr J & Ms J Webber Chulmleigh

Rev. D Ursell Diocese of Exeter,

Rural Convenor,

Dolton

Mr P Edwards Mid Devon District

Council, Tiverton

Mr M Bell South West Tourism,

Exeter

Ms C Broom University of

Plymouth, Seale

Hayne Faculty,

Newton Abbot

D & L Joslin St Giles in the Wood

Mr S Pitcher North Devon District

Council

Mr N Page-Turner Luppitt Commons

Trustees, Honiton

Ms A Harvey Blackawton Parish

Council

Mr R Easterbrook Bridestowe

Mr & Mrs R Newbolt-Young Widecombe-in-the

Moor

Ms W Vere Morchard Bishop

Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 83

Mrs A Minchin Axmouth Parish

Council

Messrs Toller Beattie Barnstaple

Mr C and Ms S May Ashford

Mr C Watson Chawleigh

Mrs V Littlewood Nymet Rowland

Parish Council and St

Bartholomew’s

Church, Nymet

Rowland

Mr A Steen Member of

Parliament for Totnes

Mrs P Carrington Buckland

Monachorum

Mr P Wrayford Kingsteignton

Ms C Stevens Cutcombe Parish

Council, Somerset

Devon County Council Mr D Roberts, Land

Agent, County Farms

Estate, Exeter

Mr A Hannaford Broadwoodwidger

Parish Council

Cutcombe Parish Council Somerset

Ms C and Mr R Thomas Muddiford

Mrs R Newton Knowstone

Mrs I Riley Knowstone Parish

Council

Regional Superintendent J Tresidder

RSPCA (Regional

Headquarters), Exeter

Mr G. Saunders Devon Wildlife Trust,

Exeter

Mrs E Cass Merrivale

Mr J Hammond Exeter

Mr P Bond Lympstone

Devon County Council Mr E Chorlton,

Environment Director,

Exeter (interests as

Public Rights of Way

Authority)

Devon County Council Mr E Chorlton,

Environment Director,

Exeter (interests as

Highway & Local

Planning Authority)

Mr T. Brooks Country Land &

Business Association

(Devon Branch),

Exeter

Mr R Brasington Torridge District

Council, Bideford

Mrs B MacDonald Moretonhampstead

D & P Woods Family Farmers

Association, Aveton

Gifford

Mrs J Burton Paignton

Devon County Council Mr C Lomax, Acting

Head of Economic

Development, Exeter

Devon County Council Ms L Osborne, Devon

Library & Information

Services, Exeter

Mr C Humphrey South West Arts and

and Ms J Hayes Devon Arts Forum,

Exeter

Ms F Winder Royal Society for the

Protection of Birds,

Sandy, Bedfordshire

Mrs A Browning Member of

Parliament for

Tiverton and Honiton

Anonymous Yelverton

Ms A Beech Stocking Pelham,

Herts

Bridestowe Parish Council

Ms J Barrow South West of

England Regional

Development Agency,

Exeter

Mr P Collins English Nature (Devon

Team), Exeter

Mrs S George Weare Giffard Parish

Council

Ms D Somers Payhembury

Mr D Johns Payhembury

Mr B Salter Hembury Fort,

nr Honiton

A & S Loud & Sons Lewdown

Mr W Turpin Chawleigh

Mr J King Chawleigh

Mr F Griffiths Tavistock

Ms V Clements Exmouth

Mr M Jowett Morwellham

Mrs E Cooper Dartmouth

P Mayston West DEN, Tavistock

Mr Martin Witheridge

Mr D May West Ashford

Mr M Gingell South Molton Town

Council

Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 84

Ms C Fanconi Okehampton and

District Council for

Voluntary Service and

Voluntary Bureau,

Okehampton

Devon County Council Ms H Allison, Head of

Communications and

Information, Exeter

Devon County Council Mr R Rivett, Head of

Trading Standards,

Exeter

Devon County Council Mr L Darling,

Transport Coordination

Service,

Exeter

Ms R Bagley South Hams District

Council, Totnes

Mr M Treharne Countryside Alliance,

Over Stowey,

Somerset

National Farmers’ Union South West Region,

Exeter

Mrs M Roberts Plympton

Mr R Baker Umberleigh

Mr C Foreman Carlton TV

Mr J Worth SW Region,

Countryside Agency,

Exeter

Devon County Council Mr A Smith, Director

of Education, Arts

and Libraries, Exeter

Elm Farm Research Centre

Mr G Bateman Environment Agency

(Devon Area), Exeter

Western Morning News Plymouth

Farm Crisis Network (South West)

Mr G Gilbert Great Western Radio

Mr T Griffith-Jones Wellington, Somerset

Mr G Willis Plympton

Devon and Cornwall Constabulary Exeter

Ms D Pring Federation of Small

Businesses (Devon

Regional Office),

Torquay

Mr E Braxton Reynolds Tickle and Reynolds,

Public Analyst’s

Laboratory, Exeter

Mr P Penning Bratton Clovelly

Parish Council

Mr A Milward Drewsteignton Parish

Council

Mr G Adams Morebath Parish

Council

Mrs B Down Ashford Parish

Council

Mr H Sampson Ashford

Ms M Costa Totnes

Mr P Snell Sandford

Mr J Hillson Bere Alston

Mr W Reed Templeton

Mrs P Woods Family Farmers’

Association,

Kingsbridge

Taste of the West Exeter

Ms A Thomas Great Torrington

Mr V Carden Maldon, Essex

Mr M Banks Petrockstowe

Mr A Boyt Davidstow, Cornwall

Mr J Bhakta Sidbury

Mr H Wilkinson

Mrs C Harding Farway

Mr D Sibley Witheridge

Mr D Sykes & Mr D Stephens Inwardleigh

Mrs L Elt Exeter

Mr C Dwyer Lynton/Lynmouth

Town Council

Mrs S Vergette Highampton

Mr T Price Exeter

Mr W Banting Muddiford

Ms M Kramer DEFRA, Exeter

Mr S Machin Western Counties

Agricultural Valuers,

Exeter

Mr C Caffin Tiverton

P Gordon Tiverton

Mr J Talbot Community Council of

Devon, Exeter

Mr P Turner Chawleigh

Mr B Inwood Christow

Mr D Pitches Jennycliff Holidays,

Plymouth

Ms V Lay Brayford

Mr A Davies Horwood

Ms J Richardson Exmouth

Mrs S Robinson Teignmouth

Mr B Jones Eastleigh

Crisis and Opportunity - Voices from Devon 85

Mrs B Ewing The Duchy School,

Bradninch

Ms R Lane Tavistock

Bridestowe Primary School

Ms C Borgen Exeter

Mr P Clarke and Ms S Sparrow Plymouth

Ms J Young Plymouth

Ms G Quiggin Woodlands Park

Primary School,

Ivybridge

Mr & Mrs J Sims Dulverton, Somerset

H Tozer Stoke Hill First School,

Exeter

Mr P Burgess Chudleigh

Mr R Wills Ilsington

Ms N Sinclair South Brent

Ms S Downs Budleigh Salterton

Ms S Levy North Devon Arts,

Barnstaple

Clawton Primary School

Clinton School Merton

Ms M Barker Totnes

H Pirwany

Dr T Hughes-Davies Fordingbridge,

Hampshire

B Clapham Christow

Mr A Barnes Morebath

S Higdon Cornwood Primary

School

Mr P Collins Merton

Mr G Bond Langtree

Mr M Badcock Kings Nympton Parish

Council

North Bovey Parish Council

Mr R Croslegh Horns Cross

Mr M Beeson Manaton

Mr S Heath Chittlehampton

Ms L Ferrand Topsham

Ms M Govier Crediton

Mr C Lott Spreyton

Ms M Tucker Okehampton

Ms C Smith Chudleigh Parish

Council

Ms R Day Kingsteignton

Devon County Council Mr T Jones, Devon

Youth Music, Exeter

North Devon Marketing Bureau Barnstaple

Dr S Barnes Hockworthy

Mrs M Williamson Meavy Church of

England Primary

School

L Lewin South Devon Herd

Book Society,

Bradworthy and Clyst

St Mary

Ms M Bishop Rattery

Mrs H Wills Denbury and

Torbryan Parish

Council

Mr J Phelps Exeter

Mr A Westaway Chulmleigh

Mr A Murdin Devon Guild of

Craftsmen, Bovey

Tracey

Protect our Wild Animals Exeter

J Budden Burrington

Ms J Pearce Chittlehamholt

Mrs D Irwin Kingsteignton

Mr J Irwin Kingsteignton

Mr R Irwin Kings Nympton

Mr M Rolls Princetown

Mrs P Bown Wembworthy

Mr M Jones Bideford

Ms C and Mr R Thomas Muddiford

Mr M Gibson Exmouth

Ilfracombe and District Tourism Association

Mr A Clements South Tawton

Ms G and Mr W Douglas-Mann Petrockstowe

Stokenham Parish Council

Mr A Giddings North Devon

Theatres, Barnstaple

Tavistock Town Council

Mr C Hodgson Diocese of Exeter,

Agricultural/Rural

Ministry Support

Group, Parracombe

Mr D and Mr E Williams Bickington

Ms J Parsons Holne

Mr L and Ms K Wright Ilfracombe

Mr P Kent Hatherleigh

Miss S Coffin South Molton

Devon County Council Mr P Berry, Outdooor

and Residential

Education Service,

Exeter

Devon Foot and Mouth Inquiry 2001 86