From Draft http://www.baphiq.gov.tw/public/Attachment/6111510243171.doc
REPORT OF THE MEETING OF THE
OIE TERRESTRIAL ANIMAL HEALTH STANDARDS COMMISSION
, 2-13 October 2006 Paris
Recommended methods for the disposal of dead animals
The method(s) chosen should be based on local conditions and
circumstancesthe required capacity and speed of outcome.
Some of the methods below may require on-farm pre-processing prior to transportation of dead animals to central facilities for rendering or incineration. Preprocessing could include the grinding of dead animals which can then be transported in sealed containers, or be subjected to fermentation, composting or freezing.
This is a closed system for mechanical and thermal treatment of animal tissues leading to stable, sterilized products, e.g. animal fat and dried animal protein. The technology exists in dedicated facilities. It produces an effective inactivation of all pathogens with the exception of prions where infectivity is reduced. The availability of the capacity should be determined in advance.
2. Incineration in a dedicated facility
In such a facility, whole dead animals or parts of animals can be completely burned and reduced to ash, often in conjunction with other substances (such as municipal waste, hazardous waste or hospital waste). Effective inactivation of pathogens, including spores, occurs. Fixed facility incineration is wholly contained and has some advantages from the environmental viewpoint as the exhausts may be fitted with afterburner chambers to completely burn hydrocarbon gases and particulate matter from the main combustion chamber.
3. Rendering and incineration
These may be combined for improved security and to provide additional fuel for furnaces in facilities used for other purposes such as in cement kilns and electricity generation plants.
4. Air curtain incineration
This process fan-forces a mass of air through a manifold, thereby creating a turbulent environment in which incineration is accelerated up to six times for example in a burn-pit. The equipment can be mobile and, because it can be used on site, there is no requirement for transportation of the animal material. It also produces effective inactivation of pathogens.
5. Pyre burning
This open system of burning dead animals is a well established procedure that can be conducted on site with no requirement for transportation of animal material. However, it takes an extended period of time and has no way of verifying pathogen inactivation, and there may be particulate dissemination from incomplete combustion. Further, because the process is open to view, there may be a lack of acceptance by the public.
Appendix XXI (contd)
Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place in the presence of oxygen. In the first phase, the temperature of the compost pile increases, organic materials break down into relatively small compounds, soft tissue decomposes, and bones soften partially. In the second phase, the remaining materials, mainly bones, break down fully to a dark brown or black humus containing primarily non-pathogenic bacteria and plant nutrients. However, some viruses and spore forming bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis, and other pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis may survive.
In this method, whole dead animals are buried and covered by soil. Burial is an established procedure which may be conducted on site. It may not inactivate all pathogens. In some circumstances, dead animals may be disposed of by mounding whereby they are covered by a layer of soil above ground.
8. Biogas production
This is a closed system of anaerobic fermentation which would require for the disposal of dead animals or their parts prior mechanical and thermal treatment of the input material (such as the liquid product of rendering plants). This process may not inactivate all pathogens.
9. Alkaline hydrolysis
This method uses sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to catalyse the hydrolysis of biological material into a sterile aqueous solution consisting of small peptides, amino acids, sugars, and soaps. Heat is applied (1500C) to accelerate the process. The only solid byproducts are the mineral constituents of bones and teeth. This residue (2% of the original weight of the animal) is sterile and easily crushed into a powder. The temperature and alkali conditions of the process destroy the protein coats of viruses and the peptide bonds of prions. Both lipids and nucleic acids are degraded. The process is carried out in an insulated steam-jacketed, stainless steel pressure vessel.
This is a high pressure, high temperature hydrolytic process, conducted in a sealed pressurised vessel. The waste material is treated at 1800C at 12 bar pressure for 40 minutes, heated by the indirect application of steam kj, other compostable material, paper and comparable materials, and cereal straws either alone or in combination. The process inactivates all microbiological agents.
11. Dead animal disposal at sea
International Conventions define the conditions to be met for the disposal of dead animals at sea.
Guidelines for decision-making for the disposal of dead animals
Strategies for dead animal disposal require preparation well in advance of an emergency in order to maximize the efficiency of the response. Major issues related to dead animal disposal can include the number of animals involved, bio-security concerns over movement of infected and exposed animals, people and equipment, environmental concerns, and the extreme psychological distress and anxiety experienced by producers and emergency workers.
Appendix XXI (contd)
The disposal of large numbers of dead animals will be expensive. As well, fixed and variable costs will vary with the choice of the disposal method. Each method used will result in indirect costs on the environment, local economies, producers, and the livestock industry. Decision makers, in addition to biosecurity considerations, need to understand the economic, social and aesthetic impact of various disposal technologies.
A disposal option hierarchy may be incapable of fully capturing and systematizing the relevant dimensions at stake, and decision makers may be forced to consider the least preferred means. It therefore requires a comprehensive understanding of any array of dead animal disposal technologies and must reflect a balance between the scientific, economic, and social issues at stake. Timely slaughter, maintenance of security and prevention of further spread of disease, are the essential considerations in terms of disease control.
The following is an example of a possible process for aiding decision-making by comparing the suitability of various disposal options against factors that are considered important for the specific disposal event in question:
1. Step 1 - Define the factors to be considered. Include all relevant factors and allow enough flexibility to permit modifications for different situations and locations. Examples of possible factors include operator safety, community concerns, international acceptance, transport availability, industry standards, cost effectiveness and speed of resolution. These factors can be modified or changed, as is shown in the following example, to best fit the situation of event involved.
2. Step 2 - Assess the relative importance of the factors by weighting each on their considered importance to addressing the event in question. The sum of all the weightings, regardless of the number of factors, must total 100.
3. Step 3 - Identify and list all disposal options under consideration. Rate each disposal option against each factor and assign a Utility Rating of between 1 to 10 to each comparison. The Utility Rating (U) is a number between 1 and 10 which is allocated according to how well the option achieves the ideal with respect to each factor (eg 1 = the worst possible fit, and 10 = the best fit).
4. Step 4 - For each factor and each disposal option, multiply the Factor Weight (F) x Utility Rating (U) to yield a numeric Balanced Value (V), (eg V = F x U).
5. Step 5 - By adding the Balanced Values to a sum for each disposal option, it is possible to compare the suitability of disposal options by numerically ranking the sums of the Balanced Values for each disposal option. The largest sum would suggest that disposal option is the best balanced choice.
An example of the use of this process follows in Table 1. In this example, rendering achieved the highest sum and would be considered as the best balanced choice and the most suitable disposal option for the factors considered.
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