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Bovine TB pages

Dr. John Gallagher, a former government vet, has said,
On-site rapid diagnosis, such as that given proper trials by Warwick, allowing any necessary euthanasia to be both humane and targeted, could defuse the whole, horrible, polarised "debate" between those who want to save their cattle and those who want to protect badgers. Both sides speak from the best of motives. But we have the technology to deal with bovine TB without a mass cull.
Recommended Blog (opens in new window)

July 9 - 14 ~ July 2007 ~ Bovine Tuberculosis: Disease Control Hansard

June 26 2007 ~ a new bovine TB science advisory body - and another deafening silence

June 22 2007 ~ Fears expressed for the future of farming in the South West of England and other hotspot areas

June 20 2007 ~ "The regime Prof Bourne has in mind is truly frightening. It's just hopeless."

June 17 2007 ~ Scientists rule out return to badger culls

June 2 2007 ~ Bovine TB "while we do everything to minimise the risk on our farm from cattle-to-cattle contamination, nothing is being done to eradicate the spread from wildlife to cattle.."

June 1 2007 ~ " The vet said there was 'absolutely no point' in PrMT (Pre Movement Testing), which involves a lot of work and expense and causes stress and damage to animals, if disease is not being controlled in the wildlife population."

March 30 2007 ~ "what steps he has taken to implement the proposals put forward by his Department's Science Advisory Council in 2005 for the establishment of a new bovine TB Science Advisory Board"

January 26-28 2007 ~ Ben Bradshaw: "We are currently considering research proposals..."

November 3 2006 ~ England and Wales are the only countries in the EU to have seen an increase in human TB cases over the past 10 years

October 14 2006 ~ "The whole basis of Krebs was to remove badgers off the ground. For the first 4 years, that effort was farcical due to restrictions placed upon us. The trial had too many flaws in it to be trusted to produce meaningful evidence.."

Oct 5 2006 ~ Dismay at new bovine TB 'hotspots'

Oct 4 2006 ~ American bTB research "the same computers - or more up to date models - that were responsible for 11 million deaths in FMD"

See DEFRA site

September 28 2006 ~ "Another glossy booklet and a new committee is not a solution to the problem of bTb, which after twenty years of prevarication is now "endemic" in the UK's badgers and producing an "epidemic" in the sentinel cattle..."

September 27 2006 ~ Claims made by the RSPCA found to be unjustified by the Advertising Standards Agency

Can the government now ignore the use of a technology that allows any necessary euthanasia to be both humane and targeted?

March 2006 ~ An Easy, Inexpensive Test Detects Tuberculosis in Livestock and Wildlife

Open Letter 24 February 2005 from more than 350 vets and scientists (new window)


Recommended articles

Worcestershire farmers fight for their cows.

Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle - extracts Journal of Clinical Microbiology, April 2005

Rapid PCR diagnostic portable kits. The UK catches up....

From the Telegraph15/09/2004"...... There will also be in-the-field testing for animal diseases, including foot and mouth or tuberculosis in cattle within 30 minutes, rather than having to send samples to a lab.
Tim Rubidge, Dstl head of technology transfer and investments group, said the idea of a tabletop DNA test laboratory was no longer a "a twinkle in the eye of a research scientist looking far out into the future".
"We have a portfolio of more than 20 strong patents, field-tested instruments and continuing research projects supporting the MoD and Department of Health," he said. "It is fair to say that we have taken PCR out of the research lab and into the field where it is most needed." ...." Read in full

The obvious potential of a portable, rapid diagnostic PCR cycler machine is to give a rapid identification of TB and the spoligotype of TB present in badgers. If one animal from a sett is found to have TB of a type causing infection in nearby cattle, then that sett could be eradicated with carbon monoxide - a humane method of killing the infected animals. Of course "Brock" is a much loved icon of the English countryside - but an unfortunate badger with TB should not in its miserable condition, be kept alive so that it can die slowly and infect everything else around.

Only in an environment free of bovine TB would it make sense to cull anything that has had contact with tuberculosis. Unfortunately, the UK with over 30% of badgers are now infected, and capable voiding up to 300,000 units of bacteria in every 1 ml of urine, most of the cows in the West will have antibodies to bovine TB. This does not mean that there will be fewer dead cows, protected by antibodies. DEFRA's policy of killing anything that reacts to the TB test means there is massive slaughter of reactors - many of whom who do not have the disease itself.

Recommended Blog

Britain 'is facing £2bn bill for TB in cattle'
By Charles Clover
(Filed: 26/11/2005)

Bovine TB Control in Great Britain A Paper for Discussion

by the National Beef Association can be seen in full here pdf file

It makes 18 recommendations, including "the obvious potential of a portable PCR cycler machine" (See below)

NBA recommendations for TB control:

1. Bovine TB is increasingly expensive both to Government and industry but it is a case where front-loading of cost will undoubtedly save money in the long run so long as a full basket of control measures is implemented. This needs to be properly explained to Treasury.

2. To bring a disease under control it is imperative that one knows where it is. The inspection for bovine TB lesions in OTM carcases, a major element in surveillance for bovine TB, may be too hurried to be effective. It is recommended that more care is taken and a sample of culls from herds with repeated TB reinfections are examined with closer veterinary attention, if necessary growing cultures from tissue samples of any carcase under suspicion.

(Only 154 cattle with visible lesions at inspection out of 3.4 million carcases seems to be almost too good to be true.)

3. Conduct a full analysis of the DEFRA database and link its information to industry databases to construct a clear national, regional and farm cluster (not merely parish) description of the incidence of TB nationwide. Faster analysis of TB 99 information would assist in compiling this essential instrument of control.

In many cases TB restrictions on neighbouring farms are completely anomalous merely because they are in adjoining parishes.

4. Test all herds in parishes within 30 kilometres of any TB incident on an annual basis until that parish has been clear of TB for at least 3 years.

5. Treat any new TB out-breaks in TB clean areas urgently by testing cattle on all neighbouring farms twice, firstly within two months and then a second time after a 60 day interval. Test sufficient of the local badger population to establish whether the TB flare-up is badger derived or cattle to cattle infection or from some other cause. Such testing could use the PCR method described in 4 (c).

6. In any case immediately introduce field trials on the portable PCR machine described in section 4 (c) of this paper for both badgers and cattle.

7. The NBA would support a blitz on cattle TB using both the skin test and the GI blood test (subject to the comments in section 4 (b)) in repeat TB incidents in low risk areas.

8. The rescheduling of testing areas i.e. six months, one, two and three years using specifically targeted areas or farm clusters rather than parishes, is necessary (see recommendation 3 above).

9. Continue enforcement of test intervals.

10. Where practicable, farmers should maintain records of where individual animals (within groups) have grazed over the summer months  particularly if they have been in fields close to badger setts or fields in which badgers are regularly present. This could provide data valuable to the understanding of local patterns of infection.

11. Reduce TB spread into low risk areas by post-movement isolation and double testing of all cattle carried from high risk to low risk regions. Where SVS veterinary inspection justifies it, cattle housed in isolation from breeding animals and going for slaughter before turn-out, could be put lower on the priority list and might often be slaughtered before a second test.

12. Any translocation of badgers from one area to another (except by DEFRA officials) should be made illegal. All badger sanctuaries should be licensed, regularly inspected, and should have to keep full records of all badgers in their care.

13. Expand the RTA survey of dead badgers throughout all high risk areas and for at least 150 kilometres beyond these. Indicate to farmers where the badger population remains free of infectious TB so they can be reassured that their local badger population is keeping outside badgers at bay. Where TB-infectious badgers are found, employ an experienced local wildlife watcher (such as a gamekeeper) to carry out an urgent survey of the numbers of badgers per sett within the locality to see the extent to which these exceed 8 per sett and to note the number of main setts in a given area.

14. Krebs reactive trial areas (now only being "observed") should be treated as proactive areas. This should be done to reverse the 27% average increase (compared to the control areas) in TB herd breakdowns caused by the (often much delayed) reactive culls. Now that the main trapping has been done in the proactive areas the DEFRA badger trapping teams can be spread wider.

15. DEFRA must remove the current moratorium on its use of section 10 of the 1992 Protection of Badgers Act which provides for licences to be granted for the removal of badgers for the purpose of preventing the spread of disease, serious damage to land, crops, poultry or any other form of property. This will open the way for limited and targeted removal of badgers under full DEFRA control, with the option for them to check such badgers to ascertain the extent of TB infection.

16. Once the effectiveness of the Krebs proactive treatment is proven, roll this outwards into adjoining TB-infected badger areas and catch any new spread of TB in badgers into lower risk areas. It should be remembered that when the 10 Krebs trial areas were chosen, they covered 75% of the TB restricted areas of the country. They now only represent about 12% of the TB restricted farms. I

17. Subject to the result of the field trials in 4 (c) (PCR testing) ensure that, where TB infected badgers are found within the Krebs trial proactive areas, and in danger spots in clean areas, the infected setts and their social groups are treated with carbon monoxide, and the setts filled in, to eliminate spread of infection to healthy badgers moving inwards. This task should be done working inwards from the outer ring to reduce the risk of infected badgers moving outwards to a clean area. See end note v

18. Publicise through all possible means:

a) The reasons why some badgers need to be culled. Include photographs of emaciated badgers in the final stages of death from TB and of their internal organs post mortem

b) The use of the PCR technique to differentiate between infectious badgers and the rest.

c) The fact that the skin test on cattle is close to 100% effective when repeated at a 60-day interval.

d) The fact that the normal incidence of TB in a herd shows that only a very few cattle have been infected (often only one and more often under 5 in 1,000 cattle), and that farming methods are therefore unlikely to be the prime cause of escalating bovine TB.

e) That the so-called 'bio-security' of attempting to separate badgers from cattle is wholly impractical.

f) The high cost of TB control and the rate at which TB costs are escalating.

g) The fact that bovine tuberculosis can be transmitted to people (children in particular), and pets, from badgers urine, pus or sputum, and that both people and other animals are in at greater risk because of the seven-fold increase in these sources of infection.

(page 10 of pdf file)

PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

There are two forms of using this powerful technique by which an enzyme and a cycle of heating and cooling is used to generate billions of copies of segments of DNA (to make detection and spoligotyping easier). After multiplication, the system identifies TB, or any other bacteria, or virus or DNA material by comparison with a known sample, utilising the properties of florescent light to do so.

a. Laboratory-based conventional heating block thermocycler using agra gel electrophosesis; this has greatly facilitated research in the Badger Road Traffic Accident study.

b. A portable mini-lab which can give an on-the-spot diagnosis of infection within 30 minutes; this technique has been developed for detection of biological warfare agents on the battlefield in the US, and in this country by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. In the UK it is being "spun-out" by an offshoot of the MOD, Enigma Diagnostics, with investment led by Porton Capital, and including the Treasury and a private venture company, Partnerships UK, and was announced in the veterinary press in September. I

A variant of this system in the form of a machine called a Lightcycler, was recommended by Professor Fred Brown of the US Plum Island Animal Disease Research Center in 2001 to the UK Government to rapidly diagnose Foot and Mouth on site. One individual went as far as ordering one, at a cost of £20,000, but the Government intervened to prevent this without providing the industry or even the individual with an explanation.

I Veterinary Times 27th Sept '04 "Battlefield technology deployed in fight against bovine TB" and BBC News 4th Oct '04
The obvious potential of a portable PCR cycler machine is to give a rapid identification of TB and the spoligotype of TB present in badgers. If one animal from a sett is found to have TB of a type causing infection in nearby cattle, then that sett could be treated with carbon monoxide with less nervousness by Ministers who would be able to give a better explanation to the general public.

There are 29 strains or spoligotypes of bovine TB, of which 17 are found very infrequently. In the UK the most common is type 9 with type 11 being more common in Devon, type 21 and 9 more common in Somerset and Dorset, and Cornwall being higher in types 9 and 15. The geographical distribution of spoligotypes of bovine TB in badgers has a high level of correlation with the distribution of spoligotypes in cattle. Spoligotype 35 has recently been identified in farmed deer near Ulverston, Cumbria, and linked to a spread to cattle there. The samples for multiplication in the PCR machine can be from any source and could merely be from a small amount of cattle blood or badger sputum or urine. Samples from several animals can be put in each of the glass testing tubes within the machine. A single case of infection in one animal would show up, allowing immediate rechecking of the animals in that batch.

The suitability of the portable PCR cycler machine for testing cattle for TB obviously depends on finding cattle that are shedding TB bacilli - either in milk, saliva, dung or urine - or which have bacilli in their blood.

The potential advantages of the PCR cycler over the gamma interferon test is that it should be able to differentiate between bovine TB and avian TB in blood and can be used on farm and give a result within 30 minutes. In the case of cattle this would save the wait of 3 days to read the skin test and the further wait of 6 to 12 weeks for confirmation of TB by culture test.

However the PCR cycle seems potentially to be of even more use in identifying bovine TB in badgers - which no other test can currently do satisfactorily. The sensitivity of the current (brock) ELISA blood test for badgers is only 40.7 per cent, and needs to be done 3 times at 28 to 42 day intervals, which entails keeping wild badgers in captivity for at least 84 days for a result. I

A further attraction of using this PCR technique is that it may be accurate enough to distinguish the TB status of individual badgers within a sett. If a half hour test can reveal this, then the targeted cull of badgers that we propose might be refined even further.

Bovine TB - news section

TB in badgers

September 2006 ~ Claims made by the RSPCA found to be unjustified

June 23 2006 ~ Why did we have to find out about the new trials from the BBC? asked Daniel Kawczynski , MP

June 23 2006 ~ Million pound Badger vaccine trial in Gloucestershire "could lead to more than 100 000 badgers being vaccinated nationwide"

June 16 2006 ~ "A DEFRA spokesman refused to be drawn

June 11 2006 ~ Bovine TB policy and badgers " joint and cooperative approach" needed - Letter in the Vet Record

June 9 2006 ~ Bovine TB "as the vets have now comprehensively exposed, the Krebs trials were only a pseudo-scientific charade, never designed to work."

May 1 2006 ~ Badgers, TB and Modern Farming Practice.

April 28 2006 ~ Re the bovine TB and badgers consultation, Defra says....

April 24 2006 ~ DEFRA job cuts signals the Government's intent to have no direct involvement in the future control of badgers

April 24 2006 ~ "A Welsh Assembly prediction that it wold take a year to collect 400 dead badgers for TB testing looks like being wrong

- 323 of the animals had been reported by the end of March, says Glyn Davies, Welsh Conservative AM for Mid and West Wales....."
"I hope the Assembly Government will now quickly establish the relationship between Bovine TB and badgers - and quickly develop a policy to tackle the disease. Bovine TB is causing devastation to the cattle herds of Wales and to the lives of many farming families. The disease is running out of control. The quick response by the public has removed one of the reasons for lack of Government action." News Wales

April 23/24 2006 ~ Pedigree calf, Fern, did NOT "show typical signs of bovine TB at the post mortem" There were no open lesions at all - but the press were told there were.


April 13 2006 ~ "the Government today (Wednesday) announced that it would meet the cost of one pre-movement test per farm

April 11 2006 ~ BBC reports that post mortem test showed bovine TB in Fern

April 11 2006 ~ Bovine TB testing move turned down by Assembly

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ "The University of Warwick is developing a portable machine to test whether a badger sett is infected...."

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ "Government vets prepare to slaughter Fern, the pedigree Dexter calf at the centre of the Kremers bovine tuberculosis case in South Devon"

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ "both theories were dismissed as "tinkering at the edges of the problem" by Dartmoor vet John Gallagher

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ Today Programme on Farmer Dick Roper's organic real food solution in th middle of the Gloucestershire TB hotspot

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ Royal Society tells ministers to justify plan to cull badgers

April 2- 9 2006 ~Can the government now ignore the use of a technology that allows any necessary euthanasia to be both humane and targeted?

April 2 - 9 2006 ~ Mum seeks answers to TB infection

March 29 2006 ~TB is rapidly increasing in Staffordshire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire and Shropshire, with cases rising by 20 per cent each year.

March 23 2006 ~ DEFRA to push on with pre-movement bovine TB testing

March 17 2006 ~ NFUS decries Defra 'policy failure' on bovine TB

14 Mar 2006 ~ "As the Government consultation on the issue closed yesterday, more than 25,000 people had sent in their views - four times the response seen during the debate on hunting with dogs.

14 Mar 2006 ~ "in the long term, the only solution is vaccination. Yes, it would be expensive, but bovine TB is already costing £100m a year in testing and compensation to farmers."

14 Mar 2006 ~ "At the moment we have serious doubts that a badger-culling strategy is likely to be beneficial and cost-effective however it is implemented," the English Nature report concluded.

13 Mar 2006 ~ Farmers may shoot badgers to stop TB

12 Mar 2006 ~ 14 million cattle movements responsible? Hardly...this is numbers moving, not hooves.

12 Mar 2006 ~ Badger cull pointless, says MPs' committee

5 Mar 2006 ~ Ben Bradshaw's statement re the Kremers case

March 4 2006 ~ Bovine TB "The Ben Bradshaw statement on the Kremers' calf calls into question the entire bovine TB testing regime."

March 2 2006 ~ We learn today that Sheilagh Kremer's Dexter calf, Fern, has been granted a second test by Defra

March 1 2006 ~ An Easy, Inexpensive Test Detects Tuberculosis in Livestock and Wildlife

9th February 2006 ~ NBA (pdf) recommendations for TB control included this vital paragraph (p18) Publicise through all possible means:

8th February 2006 ~ farmers "at the end of their tether"

Tuesday 7th February 2006 ~ The Badger Trust will use a press conference at the Commons to put forward a package of "cattle-based" measures to control the disease

WMN "......Proposals are expected to include a dramatic tightening of the cattle movement regime, investment in improved testing techniques, research into badger and cattle vaccines and stringent "biosecurity" rules to prevent cattle and badgers mixing on farms. The new strategy, which is designed to put pressure on ministers to abandon plans for a badger cull, will be launched by the former Conservative Home Officer minister Ann Widdecombe......"

Tuesday 7th February 2006 ~ Bovine TB tests in cattle face legal challenge

Monday 6th February 2006 ~ "The LVI who did the test has over-written the readings recorded on farm"

Monday 6th February 2006 ~ Wiggin: Price of everything, value of nothing

Sunday 5th February 2006 ~ "With the urgent need to develop more sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means of diagnosing M. bovis infection in cattle and badgers, the EN approach described here offers considerable potential. The method is not only easy to perform, and therefore does not require a specifically trained technician, but is also cost- and time-effective, since, once validated, it would dispense with the need for the isolation of M. bovis by culture (which is protracted and costly) or repeated visits to the farm (in the case of the cattle skin test). Furthermore, the technology is amenable to automation and/or condensation into a portable device that could eventually permit the rapid testing of large numbers of animals in situ." From Use of an Electronic Nose To Diagnose Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Badgers and Cattle Journal of Clinical Microbiology, April 2005, p. 1745-1751, Vol. 43, No. 4 This was work funded partly by DEFRA. Any information about what happened to it would be gratefully received.

Sunday 5th February 2006 ~ "its lungs and vital organs were a mass of abscesses and lesions and it must have died in agony" The RSPCA, once respected for its original and laudable aim of protecting animals from pain and neglect, has taken up a polarised position on TB and is urging its supporters to do the same by means of its urgent Back Off Badgers campaign. Instead of putting the full weight of its now considerable political clout towards persuading the government to get behind the technology already existing to effectively diagnose and eradicate bTB in both cattle and wildlife, the RSPCA is urging the public to object en masse to any idea of a cull. Their fact sheet (Know Your Facts!) includes statements such as "In the few badgers that do have symptoms they are wheeziness and loss of weight and condition. There may be some skin ulceration." The email received yesterday: " A vet friend in Staffordshire did a postmortem on a dead badger found in client's bull pen - its lungs and vital organs were a mass of abscesses and lesions and it must have died in agony - what sort of animal welfare is it that takes - (sometimes) healthy cattle and leaves sick badgers?" See also email received today and warmwell's page on the RSPCA

5th February 2006 ~ Email received about the RSPCA "back off badgers" campaign "There are clearly a number of things that readers of your site can do
(a) complain to the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) - their complaints procedure is explained on-line at .
It would be helpful if the text of the advert could be quoted so that specific complaints can be made
(b) complain to our MPs about the RSPCA's behaviour - again citing particular inaccuracies wherever possible
(c) write to our MPs asking them to press the government to prioritise the development of PCR test for bovine TB - for use on cattle and other species
(d) write to DEFRA supporting the badger cull and asking them  to prioritise the development of PCR test for bovine TB - for use on cattle and other species...."   Read in full

4th February 2006 ~ Hansard MP Anthony Steen " To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs for what reasons her Department has refused Mrs. Kremers of New Park Farm, Ogwell, Devon the option of paying for a second TB test for an animal that tested positive to the initial tuberculin skin test; and by what means Mrs. Kremers can appeal against this decision "
We understand that Mrs Kramer may now make a complaint against Defra to the Parliamentary Ombudsman.

Thursday 2nd February ~ RSPCA says, "Unfortunately, there is no reliable test for TB in live badgers"

February 1st 2006 ~ "The new compensation arrangements would better protect the taxpayer

Wednesday 1 February ~ What price PCR?

Wednesday 1 February ~ "on-site analysis in about 30 minutes "

Wednesday 1 February ~"The status of the FMD World Reference Center at the IAH as a disinterested party for the evaluation of FMD products is problematic"

Tuesday January 31st 2006 ~ mounting pressure to sanction a cull of badgers - more than 10,000 cattle in Devon and Cornwall were slaughtered because of the disease in 2005

Monday January 30th 2006 ~ Defra has no intention of using on-site PCR technology to identify infected badger setts

Sunday January 29th 2006 ~ Cats, dogs and all mammals with TB must be reported to DEFRA from next month

Saturday January 28th 2006 ~ ".... ironic that those who attempt to exonerate badgers of being the reservoir of TB infection for cattle show such little concern for the suffering those badgers with TB undergo"

Saturday January 28th 2006 ~ "misinterpretation of the scientific facts" says SVS vet

January 27 2006 ~BADGERS ARE TB VICTIMS AND VILLAINS - a letter in the Farmers Guardian

January 26 2006 ~ proposed methods .... to the alarm of both farmers and welfare groups, have focused on snaring.

January 25th 2006 ~ Carwyn Jones has been accused of "failing to listen to the needs of farmers in Wales" by Welsh Lib Dem AM Mick Bates.

January 25th 2006 ~ The EFRA Committee to consult on Bovine TB: Badger Culling - again

January 25th 2006 ~ Defra's Science Advisory Council (SAC) says badger culling is "unlikely to be an effective control measure" for bovine TB"

January 23rd 2006 ~ "by killing the sentinel cattle without listening to the song they are singing, government are exposing more and more of the population either directly, or via their pets, to a seriously infectious zoonosis"

January 22nd/23rd 2006 ~ Bovine TB: "...why, when an error may have occurred, is there no appeal process and no opportunity for the farmer to be heard? Instead, verbal bullying, threats and intimidation have been levelled ..."

January 22nd/23rd 2006 ~ Bovine TB - a time bomb mishandled

January 19/20 2006 ~ 8 reactors at Pensax - the fight is lost

January 18 2006 ~ "I have a nightmare vision of farmers fighting running battles through the countryside with animal rights extremists;

January 18 2006 ~ "absolutely no practical reason why tests could not be done"

January 18 ~ Bovine TB : Latest parliamentary questions on the issues re gassing and the culling policy .

January 18 2006 ~ Shelagh Kremers wins public support

January 18 2006 ~ Bovine TB. Ben Bradshaw says he doesn't have "information on the number of applications for private tests rejected by the SVS". Nor does he appear to understand that rapid PCR tests can already diagnose Mycobacterium bovis in live cattle.

January 18 2006 ~ bovine TB "... the panel had done little more than "rubber stamp" government proposals. His own views had been excluded from its final report."


January 6 2006 ~ Muckspreader Private Eye


15th December 2005 ~ Another consultation on Bovine TB crisis creates an unnecessary delay


July 13 2005 ~ Bovine TB in pigs


March 6 2005 ~ Booker's Notebook

July 2 2004 ~ FWi ".. NBA chief executive Robert Forster said: "Obviously, the minister cannot see the wood for the trees. Stating in May that TB was in decline was astonishingly premature of Mr Bradshaw. He should have thought how his statement would sound to those who are suffering under restrictions and whose livelihoods are still being devastated by this dreadful disease." FWi "...In the south west there is a three-month backlog on TB testing. We have had enough." Mr Haddock was supported at the meeting by Devon county chairman Martin Hann, who said he had met the minister and found him to be arrogant and contemptuous of farmers' problems." See also TB statistics comment

TB or not TB - Badgers - Sunday Telegraph May 30 2004

July 2 2004 ~ the minister cannot see the wood for the trees. Stating in May that TB was in decline was astonishingly premature of Mr Bradshaw.

May 27 - June 12 ~ "The minister's comments demonstrate a dismal appreciation of the practicalities of farming.."

Discussion paper on TB control policy options - TB Forum Secretariat paper TBF79 urce: FWi

Who advises DEFRA on TB?

TB reactors at Eatons Farm - latest

March 21 - 28 ~ Defra's TB consultation document ".. it would seem that Defra fails to define this as the purpose of using gamma interferon, and fails to rule out its use on an individual animal."