Links to papers on Foot and Mouth, - Real-Time Rapid Diagnosis, - TSE Diseases

Reference papers and links


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  • The Phillips Report - 2000


    Mainly about Foot and Mouth

    1. The 1968/9 Northumberland Report

    2. Anderson Inquiry "Lessons Learned" index and the recommendations (pdf)

    3. Royal Society Inquiry report index and its 2004 Follow-up Review (full pdf) see also below)

      (A ProMed moderator wrote at the time of the first reports in 2002: "While both last reports deal with the evolution of the FMD epizootic, their views differ in various aspects, such as the role of computer modelling; their accuracy and their impact upon decisions and decision-makers. Though the "Lessons to be learned" Inquiry had, obviously, to manoeuvre within a politically challenged landscapes, the document makes a very instructive reading. Science-based lessons are to be sought in the excellent Royal Society's document. " our italics)

    4. The executive summary of the report "Animal Health at the Crossroads"2005 from the US National Research Council can be seen here. The pdf file of the full report is also free to look at and can be viewed here.(Click once only. Slow pdf files appear after some delay in new window).

    5. Biological disasters of animal origin The role and preparedness of veterinary and public health services M. Hugh-Jones (ed.) Scientific and Technical Review, Volume 25 (1), April 2006 which includes...

      M.J. Marshall, P.A. Roger & J.B. Bashiruddin
      Making better use of technological advances to meet stakeholder needs (1)

    6. Cost Benefit Analysis of FMD disease controls - Risk Solutions for DEFRA May 2005

    7. UK Epidemic Preparedness - EU Inspection Criticisms: 1 March 2005 pdf file

    8. " What's the Game Plan for Swine in case of a foreign disease outbreak?" 2005 Banff Pork Seminar by Dr Paul Kitching , Director National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease www.banffpork.ca

    9. The Royal Society.
      Follow-Up review to the Royal Society's IDL report.
      See bullet points The Review can be seen as a webpage here.

    10. Policy and science of FMD control: the stakeholders contribution to decision making. A call for Integrated Animal Disease Management by Mary Marshall and Paul Roger: Animal Health Resources Ltd. An invited paper presented at the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (EUFMD) Research Group Open Session in Crete, October 2004:

    11. EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT: TEMPORARY COMMITTEE ON FOOT-AND- MOUTH DISEASE Questions to representatives and former representatives of the UK Government for the meeting of the temporary committee on foot-and-mouth disease on 26 March and 8 April 2002

    12. DEFRA COMMENTS TO LOCAL INQUIRIES pdf file - extract: "Ring vaccination was considered for clusters of new cases that occurred later in the outbreak, e.g. Hexham. In these cases the Chief Scientific Adviser and Chief Veterinary Officer advised that tighter biosecurity measures and culling would be the most effective and fastest measures to eradicate the disease in those areas."

    13. Review of the use of models in informing disease control policy development and adjustment. Nick Taylor http://www.defra.gov.uk/science/Publications/2003/UseofmodelsinDiseaseControlPolicy.pdf

    14. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic (pdf) T. Mikkelsen, S. Alexandersen , P. Astrup , H. J. Champion , A. I. Donaldson , F. N. Dunkerley , J. Gloster , J. H. Sxrensen , and S. Thykier-Nielsen

    15. Guest editorial - Veterinary Journal - Professor Sheila Crispin
      Foot-and-mouth disease: the vital need for collaboration as an aid to disease elimination

    16. S.M. Crispin (1), P.A. Roger (2), H. OHare (3) & S.H. Binns (4) The 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom: animal welfare perspectives

    17. Economic analysis of vaccination strategies for foot and mouth disease in the UK by Jonathan Rushton, Nick Taylor, Tony Wilsmore, Alex Shaw and Andrew James - PAN Livestock Services Ltd, UK and VEERU. "data were used to estimate costs of different strategies of stamping out and vaccination of infected and contiguous herds/flocks. The analysis indicated that stamping out of infected and suspect herd/flocks with vaccination of contiguous herds and allowing the vaccinates to live out the rest of their useful life incurs the least direct cost... it is important that people understand that fighting disease should not be done at any cost. The costs in the 2001 epidemic demonstrate, that although the losses to the livestock sector were high, they were dwarfed by the estimated losses to the tourist sector (CSA, 2001)..."

    18. U.S. Agricultural and Food Security: Who Will Provide the Leadership? (Humanitarian.net) Floyd P. Horn, PhD Roger Breeze, BVMS, PhD, MRCVS
      ".... continuous real-time surveillance must be employed to define the extent of the problem around the initial detection and to predict and track the progress of infection... real time surveillance must also be extended to all commercial flows ... This cannot be achieved by taking samples to a central laboratory. ....." alterations significantly changed our message ..."

    19. THE HOUSTON DECLARATION Agreed Upon at the HEMISPHERIC CONFERENCE ON THE ERADICATION OF FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE Houston, Texas, 3 and 4 March 2004 http://www.panaftosa.org.br/giefa/decla_ing.pdf

    20. Temporary Committee on Foot and Mouth Disease 16 September 2002 WORKING DOCUMENT 5
      Conclusions of the rapporteur

    21. DEFRA pdf files on FMD control - as html pages for those without Acrobat etc. Includes: CONTROL POLICY COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY, CONTINGENCY PLAN Annex A to Annex H (Decision Tree etc), other Vaccination documents

    22. Revised EU Council Directive FMD - September 2003 (new window)

    23. Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Library: Humanitarian Resource Institute Emerging Infectious Disease Network

    24. From the Humanitarian Resource Institute:
      Foot & Mouth Disease: The UK Lessons Online Slide Presentation - 2002 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association Annual Meeting.

    25. OIE International Conference on the Control of Infectious Animal Diseases by Vaccination Buenos Aires, Argentina, April 13-16, 2004 Conclusions and Recommendations

    26. Defra's revised FMD Contingency Plan April 2004 - pdf file opens slowly. click once only

    27. DEFRA Vaccination protocol http://www.defra.gov.uk/footandmouth/pdf/vacprotocol.pdf (new window) and html version

    28. Foot and mouth disease: facing the new dilemmas - ed Gavin Thomson OIE

    29. The Smart Cycler II TD System Cepheid

    30. Proposal to Use Orally Administered Interferon to Prevent and/or Treat Foot-and-Mouth Disease" (pdf ) Joe Cummins

    31. letter sent to Gavin Thomson on the subject of FMD and oral interferon ".....In the process of studying FMD virus transmission from carrier to susceptible cattle, carriers of FMD virus were inoculated intranasally with IBR virus in an effort to create a stress which might increase excretion of FMD virus from carrier cattle. However, FMD virus disappeared from the esophageal-pharyngeal fluid of the 2 carrier animals 1 day after IBR virus inoculation and was not detected again during the 4-week sampling period..."

    32. EU Report of the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare Adopted 24-25th April 2003
      Diagnostic Techniques and Vaccines for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Classical Swine Fever, Avian Influenza and some other important OIE List A Diseases
      pdf file 150 pages (new window)

    33. DEFRA's Dec 2003 FMD Contingency Plan pdf. ( slow - new window)

    34. The 1968 Northumberland Report

    35. Revised EU FMD Directive - Emergency vaccination section

    36. Three OIE papers on animal welfare implications of the 2001 UK FMD crisis: The 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom: animal welfare perspectives by S.M. Crispin, P.A. Roger, H. OHare & S.H. Binns, Animal welfare consequences in England and Wales of the 2001 epidemic of foot and mouth disease by C.J. Laurence (RSPCA) and Comments on the paper: Animal welfare consequences in England and Wales of the 2001 epidemic of foot and mouth disease by J.M. Scudamore, D.G. Pritchard & G.M. Whitmore

    37. Control and eradication of FMD Sutmoller, Barteling, Olascoaga and Sumption.

    38. The successful control and eradication of FMD in South America in 2001 Sutmoller, Barteling, Casas Olascoaga,Sumption

    39. Unapparent foot and mouth disease infection (sub-clinical infections and carriers): implications for control P. Sutmoller & R. Casas Olascoaga

    40. The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease Fred Brown

    41. The 2001 foot and mouth disease epidemic in the United Kingdom: animal welfare perspectives Crispin, Roger, OHare Binns (link to pdf file) Html file of the paper may be viewed here

    42. The power to panic: the Animal Health Act 2002 Professors David Campbell and Bob Lee

    43. Lessons Not Yet Learned Professors David Campbell and Bob Lee

    44. Culling By Numbers: Blackboard Economics and Foot and Mouth Disease Control by David Campbell and Robert Lee

    45. Carnage By Computer: The Blackboard Economics of the 2001 Foot and Mouth Epidemic by David Campbell and Robert Lee

    46. Use of Models in Disease Control Policy A 98 page (pdf) report for DEFRA Nick Taylor

    47. Summary of the above (Alan Beat's summary

    48. Pirbright's FMD review 2003 for DEFRA Institute for Animal Health Pirbright

    49. Identification of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus-Specific Linear B-Cell Epitopes To Differentiate between Infected and Vaccinated Cattle Höhlich,Wiesmüller, Schlapp, Haas, Pfaff, Saalmüller

    50. Article in Nature (Aug 1 2003) about the the Höhlich, Wiesmüller, Schlapp, Haas, Pfaff, and Saalmüller paper above Helen R. Pilcher

    51. Regional status and approaches to control and eradication of foot and mouth disease in the Middle East and North Africa Aidaros

    52. Benefit-cost analysis of vaccination and pre emptive slaughter (American Journal) Bates, Carpenter, Thurmond

    53. 'coherent and transparent plan still awaited' letter to Vet Record - Letter to The Veterinary Record 7th July 2003 Paul Roger BSc., MSc., BVetMed., DSHP., CertWEL., MRCVS

    54. Training pages with photos on recognising vesicular disease Aphis USDA ........................................

    55. Latest draft proposals EU FMD Directive

    56. DEFRA "Risk Assessment" webpage

    57. Open letters between Dr Barteling and Dr Donaldson

    58. Culling versus vaccination: challenging a dogma in veterinary (FMD) science

    59. European Parliament: Own-initiative Report on measures to control Foot and Mouth Disease in the European Union in 2001 and future measures to prevent and control animal diseases in the European Union - Temporary Committee on Foot and Mouth Disease (Rapporteur: Wolfgang KREISSL-DÖRFLER)
    60. Public Accounts Report into FMD

    61. Defra's Memorandum Appendix 1 to above

    62. OIE website - an important new scientific review of FMD

    63. Responses to DEFRA's Contingency Plan

    64. Development of an epitope-blocking-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to differentiate between animals infected with and vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease virus. Oem JK, Chang BS, Joo HD, Yang MY, Kim GJ, Park JY, Ko YJ, Kim YJ, Park JH, Joo YS. J Virol Methods. 2007 Mar 1; [Epub ahead of print] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T96-4N5KXKM-3-5&_cdi=5106&_user=4421&_orig=search&_coverDate=03%2F02%2F2007&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlz-zSkWb&md5=3877de48d3702aaafab291cb19f410f3&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

    65. Results of a survey of owners of miniature swine to characterize husbandry practices affecting risks of foreign animal disease. Marshall ES, Carpenter TE, Thurmond MC. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Mar 1;230(5):702-7. http://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/pdf/10.2460/javma.230.5.702

    66. Production and application of recombinant antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3ABC. Foord AJ, Muller JD, Yu M, Wang LF, Heine HG. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Feb 14; [Epub ahead of print] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T2Y-4N27D6H-1-1&_cdi=4931&_user=4421&_orig=search&_coverDate=02%2F14%2F2007&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWA&md5=254b60424be45a81118dcf165143ca6d&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

    67. Thermostable variants are not generally represented in foot-and-mouth disease virus quasispecies. Mateo R, Luna E, Mateu MG. J Gen Virol. 2007 Mar;88(Pt 3):859-864. http://vir.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/88/3/859

    68. Identification of a major antibody binding epitope in the non-structural protein 3D of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle and the development of a monoclonal antibody with diagnostic applications. Yang M, Clavijo A, Li M, Hole K, Holland H, Wang H, Deng MY. J Immunol Methods. 2007 Feb 15; [Epub ahead of print] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6T2Y-4N2DC00-1-5&_cdi=4931&_user=4421&_orig=search&_coverDate=02%2F15%2F2007&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLbVlb-zSkWz&md5=f8014cb593e793614122076593e81735&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

    69. The potential role of wild and feral animals as reservoirs of foot-and-mouth disease. Ward MP, Laffan SW, Highfield LD. Prev Vet Med. 2007 Feb 19; [Epub ahead of print] http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6TBK-4N3GNJD-1-7&_cdi=5145&_user=4421&_orig=search&_coverDate=02%2F20%2F2007&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLbVtb-zSkWb&md5=2ee86f0f5f2cb516780c1cf21ecb4dd1&ie=/sdarticle.pdf

    70. Poverty impacts of foot-and-mouth disease and the poverty reduction implications of its control. Perry BD, Rich KM. Vet Rec. 2007 Feb 17;160(7):238-41. http://veterinaryrecord.bvapublications.com/cgi/reprint/160/7/238

    71. Characterisation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains circulating in Turkey during 1996-2004. Parlak U, Ozyoruk F, Knowles NJ, Armstrong RM, Aktas S, Alkan F, Cokcaliskan C, Christensen LS. Arch Virol. 2007 Feb 9; [Epub ahead of print] http://www.springerlink.com/content/808357554264674m/fulltext.pdf

    72. DEFRA TB control discussion paper

    73. The Power to Panic(pdf) - Professors Lee and Campbell

    74. DEFRA consultation on proposed EU Directive

    75. Section 8 Vaccination - EU proposal

    76. Annex X - criteria for vaccination

    77. EU proposal FMD pdf

    78. Badgers and Bovine TB - Dr Ruth Watkins

    79. "Compassion for the health of farm animals in 2003" Dr Ruth Watkins

    80. warmwell: VACCINATION

    81. Final EU FMD report full version

    82. Professor Bob Lee and Professor David Campbell Lessons Not Learned

    83. Link to Phillips report

    84. Lord May on AHB

    85. Dr James Irvine on FMD vaccination Uruguay

    86. Dr Ruth Watkins: recommendation to EU -summary

    87. Additional material from Dr Watkins

    88. The Drummond Report

    89. NFMG Draft Programme for the Containment Control and Eradication of FMD

    90. NSP "modification": Rare Breeds International response

    91. re: International scrapie expert Dr Alan Dickinson

    92. Marshall Plan for Stakeholders Meetings etc.

    93. 78% of clinically confirmed cases were not positive

    94. Lessons Learned Report .pdf

    95. RS Inquiry - sub text?

    96. Warmwell webpage of full Royal Society summary

    97. Dr Kitching's evidence to the EU

    98. Accuracy of the Pirbright tests

    99. Myth and Reality - Nicola Morris

    100. USDA's Dr Roger Breeze on the Rapid Diagnosis machine - offered to and rejected by the UK (Royal Society report small print)

    101. Royal Society Report

    102. New evaluation of the modelling (Haywood)

    103. Royal Society Edinburgh Report

    104. "I accuse the Ministry of negligence"

    105. Intervet Technical Paper

    106. NFMG vaccination paper to RS

    107. The reality of the pre-emptive cull

    108. Defra's FMD contingency Plan (pdf)

    109. Aujeszkys disease in pigs

    110. European Livestock Alliance

    111. Bioterrorism and the UK foot and mouth outbreak

    112. National Audit Office report (.pdf)

    113. John Crowther on a re interpretation of acceptable risks

    114. New Test from Joint FAO/IAEA

    115. 2001 delays in slaughter times (PQ5479)

    116. EFRA Committee FMD Report

    117. Prof King's answers to Temporary Cttee

    118. Professor King's "role of contiguous cull"

    119. Vaccination in Uruguay facts

      Vaccination in Uruguay (from embassy)

    120. The 1968 Northumberland Report

    121. Epp-ed European Committee site

    122. Pirbright RS Submission

    123. New OIE proposal on vaccination

    124. "Points to consider in the prevention, control and eradication of FMD"(Brussels Conference)

    125. CJD/BSE/Scrapie..the truth?

    126. Slaughter and Test figures requested - by County

    127. Vaccination and Transmission (notes)

    128. Alan Richardson Veterinary Times article

    129. Important re scrapie: Northern Short-tailed Sheep Group/ RBI report

    130. Northumberland Report (pdf or Word)

    131. Vet Record May12 01 (Donaldson)

    132. State Veterinary Journal, Volume 12, number 1, 2002 Foot and mouth disease special edition PB6573

      TSE Diseases

    133. TSE Roadmap - outlines plans to relax BSE restrictions. pdf

    134. The Hill Report. Professor William Hill, Emeritus Professor at the Institute of Evolutionary Biology in Edinburgh, has carried out an assessment of the possible causes of BSE cases born after the reinforced feed ban of August 1996 (BARBs) at the request of DEFRA.

    135. Metal microcrystal pollutants; the heat resistant, transmissible nucleating agents that initiate the pathogenesis of TSEs? Mark Purdey pdf file

    136. UK Strategy for Research and Development on Human and Animal Health Aspects of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies 2004-2007 PDF file

    137. DEFRA's report on Operation Hornbeam

    138. TSE diseases: BSE in sheep bred for resistance to infection
      FIONA HOUSTON*, WILFRED GOLDMANN, ANGELA CHONG, MARTIN JEFFREY, LORENZO GONZALEZ, JAMES FOSTER, DAVID PARNHAM & NORA HUNTER
      * Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK  IAH Neuropathogenesis Unit, Ogston Building, Edinburgh EH9 3JF, UK  Veterinary Laboratories Agency Lasswade, Pentlands Science Park, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0PZ, UK
      Nature 423, 498 (29 May 2003); doi:10.1038/423498a
      Selective breeding for disease-resistant genotypes is being pursued as a means of eradicating scrapie (and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), if it is present) from sheep flocks. Here we show that the genotype associated with the highest resistance can still be infected with BSE by intracerebral inoculation. Although the relevance of this finding to sheep exposed to natural infection remains to be determined, it may have important implications for disease-eradication strategies.

    139. Scrapie epidemic in a fully PrP-genotyped sheep flock.
      Baylis M, Goldmann W, Houston F, Cairns D, Chong A, Ross A, Smith A, Hunter N, McLean AR. Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK. matthew.baylis@bbsrc.ac.uk
      vir.sgmjournals.org
    140. New Zealand sheep with scrapie-susceptible PrP genotypes succumb to experimental challenge with a sheep-passaged scrapie isolate (SSBP/1)
      Journal of General Virology (2002), 83, 1247-1250. E. F. Houston1, S. I. Halliday1, M. Jeffrey3, W. Goldmann2 and N. Hunter2
      Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK1

    141. Diagnostics for Emerging Infectious Disease Threats Volume I: TSE Disease

    142. The signature of scrapie: differences in the PrP genotype profile of scrapie-affected and scrapie-free UK sheep flocks. (Abstract)
      Baylis M, Houston F, Goldmann W, Hunter N, McLean AR.
      Institute for Animal Health, Compton, Newbury, Berkshire RG20 7NN, UK. matthew.baylis@bbsrc.ac.uk Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2000 Oct 22;267(1457):2029-35.

    143. TSE diseases: BSE in sheep bred for resistance to infection Nature 423, 498 (2003); doi:10.1038/423498a

    144. Measuring prions causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy or chronic wasting disease by immunoassays and transgenic mice Safar, Monaghan Deering Didorenko Vergara Ball Legname Leclerc Solforosi Serban Groth Burton Prusiner Williamson

    145. TSE's - by Dr S Haywood and Dr D Brown (Vet Times)

    146. BSE did not cause variant CJD: an alternative cause related to post-industrial environmental contamination D. R. Brown, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK

    147. Elevated silver, barium and strontium in antlers, vegetation and soils sourced from CWD cluster areas: Do Ag/Ba/Sr piezoelectric crystals represent the transmissible pathogenic agent in TSEs?
      Mark Purdey*


      Papers on Real Time Rapid Diagnosis (mainly in connection with FMD)

    148. Diagnosis of Foot-and-Mouth disease virus by automated RT-PCR
      Scott M. Reid, Nigel P. Ferris, Geoffrey H. Hutchings and Soren Alexandersen

    149. Use of automated RT-PCR to detect FMDV in milk
      Scott M. Reid1 *, Satya Parida1, Donald P. King1, Geoffrey H. Hutchings1, Andrew E. Shaw1, Nigel P. Ferris1, Zhidong Zhang1, J. Eric Hillerton2 and David J. Paton1 TOP of menu

      " In a civilised society, animal disease should be treated according to ethically acceptable methods based on independent and scientifically validated knowledge - not agro-economic or political considerations."