See also the important paper by Sutmoller and Barteling on the warmwell site: Points to consider in the prevention, control and eradication of FMD
and warmwell's own article on misinformation
Modern Vaccines can Perform Well in the Event of an Outbreak of FMD. This is exemplified by the control of the FMD Outbreak in Uruguay 2001.
During the last ten years vaccines have been successfully used for the control of outbreaks in Bulgaria (1994), Thrace province of Turkey (1995, 1996), Macedonia (1996), Yugoslavia (1996), South-Africa (2000, 2001), The Netherlands (2001), Argentina (2001) and Uruguay (2001).
In 2001 Uruguay enjoyed FMD disease free OIE status without vaccination. On 23rd April 2001 FMD was clinically suspected and confirmed on 24th April. It was caused by type A. It was thought that the virus entered Uruguay from neighbouring Argentina by the movement of trucks, machinery and people. This is supported by the fact that a particularly intense sero-epidemiological surveillance had been carried out in the area along the Rmo Uruguay immediately prior to the outbreak (March and April) and had shown no evidence of FMD viral activity.
The outbreak in Uruguay lasted from 24th April until the 26th August, 2001. The incidence rates were comparable with those of the UK in 2001 and were about 50 per day one month after the outbreak (Figures 1 & 2, Table 1).
Click here for enlarged image
Click here for enlarged image
Click here for enlarged image
Slaughter of all sick and in contact animals was started immediately, together with movement restrictions (initially locally and export) and extended nationally on 27th April, enforced by the police and the army.
Total Number of Animals Slaughtered throughout the Uruguay 2001 FMD outbreak as part of a Stamping out Policy:
All slaughter occurred between 24th and 30th April 2001 and
Ring vaccination and anticipated mandatory slaughter of all vaccinated animals was started on 27th April in accord with their contingency planning.
In view of the further spread of the disease this was quickly superseded by massive vaccination of all cattle in the country and discontinuation of stamping out (no more slaughter whether the animals were diseased or not). Neither sheep nor goats were vaccinated as they were thought to have only a minor role.
Total Number of Holdings infected with FMD = 2,057
Thus the first massive emergency vaccination, including all the cattle population on a national scale, began on 5th May 2001, at the border with Brazil, and proceeded from North to South and from East to West and was completed by 7th June, 2001. Almost 11 million cattle were vaccinated, whilst the 12 million sheep grazing beside them were not. The pigs were not vaccinated as it was considered that the particular vaccine used was not effective in pigs.
The vaccine was provided to the farmers free by the authorities. It was oil-based. There was no shortage.
Vaccination was carried out by the farmers themselves following a clear geographical pattern and had to be done within defined dates for each region. Checks were carried out by government officials using serological tests and a 99% compliance demonstrated.
Total Number of Cattle in the Country:
All were included in the emergency vaccination programme on 48,518 Farms.
Sheep, Pigs and Goats were not vaccinated
The second round of massive emergency vaccination (booster or re-vaccination) was started on 15th June 2001 and was completed on 22nd July 2001 providing, due to its booster effect, an expected 99 to 100% effective protection.
The rate of new cases quickly dropped to a few incidences per day (see Figure 4).
Movement restrictions were discontinued on the 6th of June, 2001. Instead of slaughter animals were quarantined and there was a stand still of animal movement. The only slaughter that took place occurred during the first few days of the outbreak and was confined to April only.
Mean Attack Rates on Direct Contact and at Risk Populations involved in the affected 2,057 farms and the surrounding areas:
5% for Cattle (76,579 out of 1,518,965)
0.02% for Sheep (236 out of 947,879)
A European Commission mission to Uruguay took place between the 25th and the 29th June 2001 in order to examine the epidemiological situation regarding FMD and the control measures in place (1).
On the 26th of August Uruguay had their last case.
A European Commission mission to Uruguay took place between the 1st and 4th October, 2001 in order to evaluate the controls in place over foot and mouth disease (2).
Total Cost of Compensation
1,866,783 US dollars
During November 2001, all calves born during the year 2001 were vaccinated or re-vaccinated. This vaccination period finished on 30th November, 2001.
The vaccination of all cattle was carried out in February 2002 and again in May 2002, involving Uruguays whole cattle stock.
In November 2002 it is planned that all bovine animals born during the year, until August, shall be vaccinated.
Meetings with other countries within the region are planned in order to establish future eradication programmes.
In the months of February, April, September and October 2002, serological surveys were and will be carried out in cattle and sheep.
There are no documented cases in this outbreak of vaccinated animals causing new outbreaks. There have been no new cases of FMD in Uruguay up to the time of writing, June 2002: i.e. 10 months since their last case. There is therefore no evidence that carrier animals could transmit disease to other animals in this context: i.e. a vaccinated population of cattle mixed with an unvaccinated population of sheep and goats, nor in unvaccinated pigs.
On 1st November 2001 the European Commission granted permission for Uruguay to export de-boned meat into Europe (3).
Teviot Scientific Consultancy
6a Chester Street
Edinburgh EH3 7RA
© 2002 Teviot Scientific & www.land-care.org.uk
1. Final report of a mission carried out in Uruguay from 25 to 29 June 2001 in order to evaluate the situation with regard to outbreaks of foot and mouth disease. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate - General. Food and Veterinary Office. (Download report [pdf]).
2. Final report of a mission carried out in Uruguay from 1 to 4 October 2001 in order to evaluate the controls in place over foot and mouth disease. European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate - General. Food and Veterinary Office. (Download report [pdf]).
3. Commission Decision of 31 October 2001 amending Decision 93/402/EEC concerning animal health conditions and veterinary certification for imports of fresh meat from South American countries to take account of the animal health situation in Uruguay. (Download .pdf)